Citation Guides

This page provides information about citing sources in the most commonly used citation styles (APA, MLA, Chicago Manual Style, AAA & ASA).

When you quote, paraphrase, summarize, or otherwise refer to the work of another, you are required to cite its source, either with a parenthetical citation, footnote, or endnote. Not to do so is considered plagiarism. Anything you write or create that uses or refers to the ideas of another person must be cited properly, this includes:

  • direct quotations
  • paraphrasing of passages
  • indebtedness to another person for an idea
  • use of another student's work
  • use of your own previous work

You do not need to cite common knowledge. For example, you do not need to cite the fact that Thomas Jefferson was the third president of the United States, but you would need to cite your source for the number of slaves he inherited from his father.
Tips to help avoid plagiarism.

Before starting your research, identify the appropriate citation style according to the academic discipline and/or media format. Check with your instructor about which style you should use.

Style Guides