Courses of Instruction

Wells College course offerings by subject and number.
Catalog Requirements Notice

The requirements listed on these pages may change by the year as programs and courses are added or altered. Archived Academic Catalogs for previous years can be viewed in pdf form here. These documents contains the specific academic requirements pertaining to those who entered the College before the 2015-16 year.

Courses use letter grades unless otherwise indicated. The College reserves the right to cancel any course not elected by a sufficient number of students.

See our Course Listings by Subject:

Anthropology

ANTH 161. Introduction to Anthropology
This course introduces the fundamentals of anthropology: what does it mean to “think anthropologically”? Ethnographic case studies reveal the ways in which anthropology encourages us to confront critical issues of survival for indigenous peoples and local cultures. Offered annually fall semester. (3 semester hours)

ANTH 210. Material Culture and Museums
The course examines anthropological scholarship on the complex relationship between lived cultures, their material objects, and museums/ethnic theme parks. It explores issues of cultural authenticity, ownership and preservation, political subordination and misrepresentation, and cultural change in a globalizing world. Prerequisites: ANTH 161 or MSEU 100 or POI. Every Spring semester. (3 semester hours)

ANTH 222. Anthropology, Religion and Colonialism
An exploration of anthropological approaches to the study of religion. Particular attention is paid to “local” or indigenous religions from Africa, Asia, the Pacific, and elsewhere. Such local religions are studied in relation to world religions, colonization, and global influence. Offered alternate fall semesters. (3 semester hours)

ANTH 230. Culture and Gardens
This course will travel through time and space to garden spaces and practices found in a wide range of cultures. (3 semester hours)

ANTH 250. Hawaii: Colonialism and Tourism
This course is an anthropological examination of the cultures and religions of Hawaii, from pre-contact with the West to contemporary context. Particular attention is paid to the effects of colonialism and tourism. Prerequisite: any social science course. Offered annually fall semester. (3 semester hours)

ANTH 260. Ethnographic Methods
A hands-on course for learning about and practicing ethnographic research methods. We will spend class time examining different styles of write-up, different approaches to getting information and different ways of interpreting data. Students must complete a research project. Prerequisite: one course in the social sciences and sophomore standing. Offered annually. (4 semester hours)

ANTH 270. The Anthropology of Food
This course looks at human relationships with food — the meaning of food, the origins of food, the political economy of food, and food controversies — all with the eye of an anthropologist. Prerequisite: one course in the social sciences. Offered alternate years. (3 semester hours)

ANTH 280. World Archaeology
This course is an introduction to world archaeology. The course provides a survey of archaeological methods and theory. The course highlights the development of the discipline and some of the great civilizations of the ancient world are considered from an archaeological viewpoint. Offered alternate fall semesters (3 semester hours)

ANTH 290/390. Internship in Anthropology
The anthropology internship is designed to be an experience beyond the classroom. The internship might include archaeological fieldwork, service learning in an institution or community, or activism within a particular cultural context. Costs and arrangements are the responsibility of the student. Graded: S/U. Offered as needed. (2-4 semester hours)

ANTH 330. Anthropological Theory and Ethnography
The course surveys contemporary anthropological theory and research. A close reading of several recent ethnographies allows for a critical examination of culture, fieldwork, and ethnographic representation via text, photography, film, and material display. theories and research methods. The course examines a number of anthropological texts that critically reflect on ideas about culture, fieldwork, and ethnographic representation. Offered every spring semesters. (3 semester hours)

ANTH 345. Maya Ethnography
An exploration of Maya culture and society. We will focus on gender relations, traditional healing, religion and social problems (especially domestic violence and alcoholism). We will also discuss representations of Mayan peoples in academia, tourism and mass media. Prerequisite: one course in the social sciences. Offered alternate years.. (3 semester hours)

ANTH 359. The Pacific and Cultural Survival
This course is a study of Pacific cultures and the social, economic, religious, political, and environmental challenges that threaten their survival. Topics such as global warming, depletion of the natural environment, political unrest, and economic crisis are considered in relation to local cultural responses. Prerequisite: one course in anthropology or sociology. Offered alternate years. (3 semester hours)

ANTH 385. Topics in Anthropology
In-depth study of a selected topic in anthropology. Past topics included: Contemporary Native American Issues. May be repeated for credit with different topics. Offered as needed. (2-4 semester hours)

ANTH 399. Independent Study in Anthropology
Prerequisite: permission of instructor and approval. May be repeated for credit. Offered as needed. (1-3 semester hours)

See also: Courses in Sociology; OCS 300. The Anthropological Experience in Hawaii; OCS 305. The Anthropological Experience in Belize

Art

ART 118. Three-Dimensional Design
A fundamental sculpture design course with emphasis on experimentation with materials, forms, and images. Found objects, string, rope, twine, wire, glue, cardboard, foamcore, Styrofoam, wood, plaster, clay, etc. will be used. Wood cutting and carving, plaster mold-making, and ceramic processes will be introduced. Materials fee: $50. Offered alternate years. (3 semester hours)

ART 119. Visual Organization
Principles of two-dimensional design and color theory will be explored in studio-based projects drawing from a variety of disciplines. Current and historical examples will be emphasized, encouraging fluency with our contemporary visual culture. Materials fee: $50. Offered alternate years. (3 semester hours)

ART 121. Beginning Drawing
Students will learn the fundamentals of representational drawing, with an emphasis on hand-eye coordination, observation, and skilled technique. Materials fee: $40. Offered every fall. (3 semester hours)

ART/BKRT 127. Introduction to Print and Graphic Design
Fundamental principles of graphic design and visual communication. Content to include current techniques and tools, including digital processes along with historical processes and hands-on work. Materials fee: $50. Offered alternate years. (3 semester hours)

ART 223. Painting I
Introductory class in painting, focusing on technique and craftsmanship in support of content. Coursework will explore topics including representation, expression, and non-objectivity, in both studio projects and engagement with historical and contemporary examples. Prerequisite: ART 119 or ART 121. Materials fee: $50. Offered alternate spring semesters. (3 semester hours)

ART 241. Introduction to Oxidation Fired Pottery
An introduction to pottery course. The ceramic vessel tradition will be explored using oxidation glazes and firing techniques. The development of vivid surface colors will also be explored. Materials fee: $50. Offered annually fall semester. (3 semester hours)

ART 242. Introduction to Reduction Fired Pottery
An introduction to hand-building and throwing techniques and the ceramic process, using High-Fire gas kiln reduction firing methods. The emphasis will be on hand-building, wheel work, form, and function in the ceramic vessel tradition. Materials fee: $50. Offered annually spring semester. (3 semester hours)

ART 260. Introduction to Darkroom Photography
Introduction to black and white photography focusing on 35 mm SLR camera use, film development and enlargement, and darkroom techniques. Students will also be introduced to historical and contemporary approaches to darkroom photography. $50 materials fee. Offered alternate years. (3 semester hours)

ART 261. Photographic Digital Imaging
An introductory course in digital photographic processes. Students engage with contemporary critical conversations related to digital photography while learning to use Photoshop, DSLR cameras, scanners, and inkjet printers. Materials fee: $50. Offered alternate years. (3 semester hours)

ART 262. Alternative Video in Art and Society
This studio seminar examines time-based art practices used to foster social engagement, political action, and the development of community. Students will shoot, edit, and share video while developing an understanding of the historical & cultural precedents for alternative video production. (3 semester hours)

ART 285/385. Special Topics in Studio Art
In-depth study of a selected topic in Studio Art. May be repeated for credit with different topics. Offered as needed. (3 sem. hrs.)

ART 290/390. Internship in Studio Art
Individually arranged participation in the work of an institution devoted to the visual arts, such as an advertising agency, artist’s studio, or design firm. May be repeated for credit. Graded: S/U. Offered every semester. (2-4 semester hours)

ART 323. Painting II: Oil Painting
Advanced coursework in techniques, strategies, and concepts pertaining to painting, with particular emphasis on the development of an intermediate-level studio practice. Coursework will encourage students to engage with issues and concerns in contemporary Painting. Prerequisite: ART 121 or ART 223. Materials fee: $50. Offered alternate years. (3 semester hours)

ART 350. Creative Art Projects
Advanced study focusing on purposefully merging concepts and techniques, developing informed creative thinking skills. Coursework includes assigned readings, studio projects developed in consultation with instructor, and research. This course increases contemporary art awareness, conceptual intentionality, and technical skill. Prerequisite: Junior VART Major concentratin in Book Arts or Studio Art. May be repeated for credit. Offered annually spring semester. (4 semester hours)

ART 395. Tutorial in Art 
Advanced work in ceramics, photography and lithography. Materials fee: $50. Offered as needed. (1 semester hour)

ART 396. Tutorial in Art 
Advanced work in ceramics, photography and lithography. Materials fee: $50. Offered as needed. (2 semester hours)

ART 399. Independent Study in Studio Art
Prerequisite: two studio art courses and demonstrated advanced skills. May be repeated for credit. Materials fee: $50. Offered every semester. (1-3 semester hours)

See also: Book Arts courses; Wells in Florence; OCS 110. January at the Art Students League — New York City; VART 401. Senior Seminar in Visual Arts; VART 402. Senior Project or Essay in Visual Arts; VART 403. Senior Exhibition in Visual Arts

Art History

ARTH 101. Prehistoric to Renaissance Survey
A survey of major monuments in the history of art and an overview of their relationships to the cultures that produced them. Emphases on literature, politics, philosophy, religion, or society varies according to the period. Offered annually fall semester. (3 semester hours)

ARTH 102. Renaissance to Contemporary Survey
A survey of major monuments in the history of art since 1600, and an overview of their relationships to the cultures that produced them. Emphases on literature, politics, philosophy, religion, or society varies according to the period. Offered annually spring semester. (3 semester hours)

ARTH 105. Art of Non-Western Cultures Survey
A survey of art, architecture and other monuments outside the Western tradition and an overview of their relationships to the cultures that produced them. Topics will include the arts of India, China, Japan, Islamic cultures, Africa, Oceania, and native cultures of the Americas. Offered alternate fall semester. (3 semester hours)

ARTH 235. Contemporary Art
This class will introduce visual and conceptual expressions from recent decades. Students will examine contexts of contemporary politics, markets and aesthetics, and will be introduced to theoretical concepts in order to understand expressions of identity, globalization, technology and postmodernism among other principles. Offered annually. (3 semester hours)

ARTH 255. A Survey of Renaissance Art
A survey of the major forms and directions in Italian art from the 14th through the 17th centuries. Prerequisite: 100-level art history course. Offered occasionally. (3 semester hours)

ARTH 270. A Survey of Modern Art
A survey of European and American art from 1750 to the present. Offered alternate fall semester. (3 semester hours)

ARTH 285/385. Topics in Art History 
In-depth study of a selected topic in art history. May be repeated for credit with different topics. Past topics have included Latin American Arts, Shaping Sacred Spaces: Italy 1200-1680, Art and Commerce, Medieval Illuminated Manuscripts, Survey of Baroque Art, and Islamic Art in the Mediterranean. Offered as needed. (3 semester hours)

ARTH 290/390. Internship in Art History
Individually arranged participation in the work of an institution devoted to the visual arts, such as museums, galleries, or libraries. Prerequisite: permission of instructor. Graded: S/U. May be repeated for credit. Offered as needed. (2-4 semester hours)

ARTH 299/399. Independent Study in Art History
Prerequisite: permission of instructor and approval. May be repeated for credit. Offered every semester. (1-3 semester hours)

ARTH 395. Tutorial in Art History
In-depth study of an area of special interest. Topic determined jointly by a faculty member and student(s) in consultation. Meets weekly for one hour. Offered as needed. (1 semester hour)

ARTH 401. Senior Seminar in Art History
A research seminar leading to the development of students’ individual research priorities, bibliography, and thesis proposal. Prerequisite: Senior ARTH major and VART 300. Offered as needed, fall semester. (2 semester hour)

ARTH 402. Senior Essay in Art History
A research paper and presentation on a topic approved by the instructor. Prerequisite: ARTH 401. Offered as needed, spring semester. (2 semester hour)

See also: Wells in Florence; ARTS 310. Women and the Arts; MUS 210. World Music

Arts (Interdisciplinary)

ARTS 285/385. Special Topics in the Arts
In-depth study of a selected topic in the arts. May be repeated for credit with different topics. Offered alternate years. (2-4 semester hours)

ARTS 310. Women and the Arts
The course focuses on art of the 19th and 20th centuries by and about women. Some questions to be addressed include: Is the category of gender applicable to aesthetic considerations in the arts? What is masculine and feminine in the arts? Are political concerns relevant to analysis of the arts? Offered as needed. (3 semester hours)

See also: FMS 281. Film and Literature

ASL (American Sign Language)

ASL 101 and ASL 102. Elementary American Sign Language
Courses are designed to develop the skills and knowledge needed to communicate in American Sign Language. Students are first introduced to basic sign language vocabulary, fingerspelling, and aspects of American Deaf culture and history in 101. In 102, students continue to develop American Sign Language vocabulary and finger spelling learning sentence construction as well. Students will continue to learn about Deaf culture, community, and education. Offered annually, 101 in the Fall, 102 in the Spring. (3 semester hours each)

Biological and Chemical Sciences

BCS 105L. Forensic Science
A general introduction to forensic science as applied to criminal investigation and related fields. Focuses on applied principles of physics, chemistry and biology, and on laboratory techniques and procedures. Offered alternate year spring semester. (4 semester hours)

BCS 290. Internship in Biological and Chemical Sciences
These introductory internships provide an opportunity for well-qualified students considering careers in the biological and chemical sciences. Interns will work with professional scientists. Each student will give a public presentation of her or his internship upon her or his return to campus. Prerequisite: two 100-level BIOL courses or CHEM 107L and CHEM 108L, or permission of instructor. Graded: S/U. May be repeated for credit. Offered every semester. (2-4 semester hours)

BCS 390. Advanced Internship in Biological and Chemical Sciences
This program is intended to encourage advanced students of biological and chemical sciences to discover the areas of overlap between academic study and the application of scientific knowledge and techniques. Work sites may include hospitals, foundations, clinics, and research laboratories of academic, government or industrial affiliation. Students will consult with the instructor during the development of their internships. Upon return to campus, interns will give a public presentation with written and oral components. Prerequisite: five courses in biology and/or chemistry, or permission of instructor. Graded: S/U. May be repeated for credit. Offered every semester. (2-4 semester hours)

BCS 398. Independent Research in Biology and Chemistry
Supervised research in selected areas of biology and chemistry, which may include experimental work in the laboratory or field as well as in-depth library research. Prerequisite: four courses in biology and/or chemistry and permission of instructor. May be repeated for credit. Offered every semester. (1-4 semester hours)

BCS 399. Independent Study in Biological and Chemical Sciences
Prerequisite: permission of instructor and approval. May be repeated for credit. Offered every semester. (1-3 semester hours)

BCS 401. Advanced Research
Original laboratory or field research on a biological or chemical problem. Prerequisite: junior or senior class standing and permission of instructor. May be repeated for credit. Offered every semester. (1 or 2 semester hours)

BCS 402. Senior Research Paper in Biological and Chemical Sciences
Independent research paper on a biological or chemical problem, developed under the supervision of a BCS faculty member. Includes constructing a bibliography of relevant literature and writing a paper examining literature. Students who have performed independent laboratory or field research are encouraged to use their results as the focus of this paper. Prerequisite: permission of instructor. Offered annually fall semester. (2 semester hours)

BCS 403. Senior Seminar in the Biological and Chemical Sciences
This capstone course covers current research literature in biological and chemical sciences. Students will write and present paper summaries for discussion that are appropriate for both a scientific and non-scientific audience. Post-graduate career opportunities, and how to pursue them, will be considered. Prerequisite: Senior standing. Offered annually fall semester. (4 semester hours)

See also: Biological and chemical sciences majors for a list of related courses counting toward the major; ENVR 131L. Physical Geology; Biology courses; Chemistry courses

Biology

Students may not take two 100-level courses in Biology concurrently.

BIOL 114L. Anatomy and Physiology I
Human anatomy and physiology of selected body systems including sensory systems, reproduction, locomotion, nutrition, and metabolism. Laboratories will include anatomical study specimens as well as physiological exercises using student volunteers. Offered annually fall semester. (4 semester hours)

BIOL 119L. Ecology and Evolution
Organic evolution, the unifying concept in biology, and its relationship with ecology, the distribution and abundance of organisms. The role of ecology and evolution in environmental science and conservation biology. Offered annually fall semester. (4 semester hours)

BIOL 130L. Biology of Organisms
The study of the diversity of organisms in all three domains, Archaea, Bacteria and Eukarya, focusing on the fungal, plant and animal kingdoms. The organ structure and functions of these organisms, their reproduction and their development will be studied in an evolutionary context. Offered annually spring semester. (4 semester hours)

BIOL 185/285/385. Topics in Biology
In-depth study of a selected topic in biology. Investigation of biological topics of special interest to faculty or students. Areas of applied biology (e.g. health, agriculture, horticulture, conservation) or in-depth study of a particular taxon (e.g., ornithology, bryology, entomology) are likely topics. Level of instruction depends on the topic. Past topics have included ”The Biology of Humans”, “Ornithology”, and “Enology: The Science of Wine”. May be repeated for credit with different topics. Offered occasionally. (2-4 semester hours)

BIOL 226L. Genetics
An introduction to principles of genetics ranging from molecules through populations, covering the genetics of various organisms, theory and practice of standard techniques, and consideration of the promise AND potential ethical dilemmas accompanying new genetic technologies and genomic analyses. Offered annually spring semester. Prerequisite: Chem 213L, 1 semester of any of the 100-level biology classes, or POI. (4 semester hours)

BIOL 304L. Vertebrate Zoology
The classification, comparative morphology, and evolution of vertebrates. Demonstrations and dissections of selected vertebrates. Prerequisite: BIOL 130L or 114L and another 100-level BIOL course. (4 semester hours)

BIOL 305. Plant Diversity and Evolution
Modern and classical methodologies to understand classification and evolution of plants. Emphasis will be placed on the identification of seed plants of the northeastern United States. Prerequisite: BIOL 130L or permission of instructor. (3 semester hours)

BIOL 309. Cellular Biology
A study of cell structure and function, emphasizing molecular components. Topics include metabolism, signaling, secretion, organelle function, growth and division, motility, and death. Laboratory exercises include light and fluorescent microscopy, immunostaining, protein analysis, and cell fractionation. Prerequisites: Biol 114L, Biol 130L, Biol 226L, Chem 107L, Chem 108L. Alternate Fall semester. (3 semester hours).

BIOL 310L. Microbiology
The structure, physiology, genetics, and immunology of microorganisms and their applications to fields such as foods, sanitation, and medicine. The laboratory stresses bacteriological laboratory techniques as well as recombinant DNA technology. Prerequisite: BIOL 130L and BIOL 226L, plus CHEM 213L, or permission of instructor. (4 semester hours)

BIOL 312L. Molecular Biology
A molecular genetics course covering structure, function, and regulation of prokaryotic and eukaryotic genomes. The laboratory focuses on applications of current nucleic acid and protein analyses and manipulations. Prerequisite: BIOL 226L and CHEM 214L. (4 semester hours)

BIOL 324L. Animal Behavior
An ecological and evolutionary approach to animal behavior. Lectures and discussions cover feeding, sexual behavior, aggression, cooperation, communication, and the evolution of social behavior. Weekly laboratory and field sessions concentrate on the quantitative study of the behavior of captive and free-living animals. Prerequisite: BIOL 119L and BIOL 130L or POI. (4 semester hours)

BIOL 325L. Limnology
The biological, chemical, geological, and physical aspects of fresh waters. Emphasis will be on the study of lakes and streams as ecosystems, although consideration will also be given to the biology of the organisms that inhabit these bodies of water. Prerequisite: BIOL 119L and BIOL 130L or ENVR 101, or POI. (4 semester hours)

BIOL 330L. Anatomy and Physiology II
Basic physiological mechanisms in animals, including a detailed analysis of the physiology of neural control, excretion, movement, respiration, nutrition, thermoregulation, and reproduction. Prerequisite: BIOL 130L, BIOL 114L BIOL 226L, and CHEM 214L. (4 semester hours)

BIOL 331. Developmental Biology
The patterns and mechanisms of development in animals including gametogenesis, totipotency, cellular interactions, and genetic control of development. Prerequisite: BIOL 130L, and BIOL 226L. (3 semester hours)

BIOL 363. Advanced Ecology
The interactions that determine the distribution and abundance of organisms. Prerequisite: BIOL 119L and BIOL 130L or permission of instructor. May be repeated for credit with different topics. Offered alternate fall semesters. (3 semester hours)

BIOL 395. Tutorial in Biology
In-depth study of an area of special interest. Topic determined jointly by a faculty member and student(s) in consultation. Meets weekly for one hour. May be repeated for credit. Offered as needed. (1 semester hour)

BIOL 399. Independent Study in Biology
Prerequisite: permission of instructor and approval. May be repeated for credit. Offered every semester. (1-3 semester hours)

See also: School for Field Studies; ENVR 131L. Physical Geology; ENVR 340. Sustainable Agriculture; HIST 212. Introduction to the History of Science

Book Arts

BKRT 105. Introduction to Calligraphy
An introduction to the principles of calligraphy through the study of three hands: Roman, Humanistic Miniscule and Italic. Emphasis is on practice and technique, with time devoted to the history of letter forms and to individual projects. Tool kit: $80. Offered annually fall semester. (3 semester hours)

BKRT 115. Hand Bookbinding I
This course introduces students to traditional bookbinding techniques by familiarizing them with the tools, materials and techniques of the craft. Students are expected to produce a set of book models that are clean, structurally sound, and consistent with the class demonstration. Lab/Tool kit fee: $75. Offered every semester. (3 semester hours)

ART/BKRT 127. Introduction to Print and Graphic Design
Fundamental principles of graphic design and visual communication. Content to include current techniques and tools, including digital processes along with historical processes and hands-on work. Materials fee: $50. Offered alternate years. (3 semester hours)

BKRT 120. Letterpress Printing
Introduction to letterpress printing. Demonstrations, readings, and assignments on the mechanics of handsetting and printing from metal type. Traditional and artistically innovative approaches to using this medium will be covered. Each student will create her or his own individual projects: postcards, broadsides, book, etc. Prerequisite: permission of the director of the Book Arts Center. Lab/materials fee: $75. Offered every semester. (3 semester hours)

BKRT 215. Hand Bookbinding II
As a continuation of Binding I we will discuss topics related to craftsmanship. While learning more complex structures we will learn experimental image-making techniques with contemporary letterpress printing. The students will create a series of editioned books. Prerequisite: permission of the director of the Book Arts Center. Lab fee: $75. Offered as needed. (3 semester hours)

BKRT 220. Digital Book and Graphic Design
Students will explore classical design principles while learning the digital medium of Adobe InDesign, today’s principal publishing and graphic arts design tool. Poster and brochure design will prepare students for the final project of a short, digitally produced hand-bound volume. Prerequisite: permission of the director of the Book Arts Center. Lab fee: $40. Offered annually. (3 semester hours)

BKRT 225. The History of the Book
Surveys the development of the codex, from its beginnings as a parchment manuscript to a printed book on paper. Broad themes such as patronage, manufacture, usage and reception are considered, as well as the evolution of writing, papermaking and bookbinding. Prerequisite: permission of the director of the Book Arts Center. Offered as needed. (3 semester hours)

BKRT 320. The Printed Book
Each student will produce an edition of letterpress printed books with text and images. Image-making using linoleum blocks, pressure printing, and polymer plates will be taught, as well as simple bookbinding techniques. collographs and polymer plates will be taught, we well as simple bookbinding techniques. Prerequisite: BKRT 120 or permission of the director of the Book Arts Center. Lab/materials fee: $75. (3 semester hours)

BKRT 285/385. Topics in the Book Arts
In-depth study of a selected topic in the book arts. Topics may include paper making, marbling, calligraphy, publication, etc. Materials fee may be required. May be repeated for credit with different topics. Past topics have included: Inspiration and the Medieval Binding, and Introduction to Box Making. Prerequisite: permission of the director of the Book Arts Center. Offered as needed. (2-4 semester hours)

BKRT 290/390. Internship in the Book Arts
Individually arranged participation in the work of an institution devoted to the book arts. May be repeated for credit. Graded: S/U. Offered every semester. (2-4 semester hours)

BKRT 299/399. Independent Study in the Book Arts
Prerequisite: permission of the director of the Book Arts Center. Materials fee may be required. May be repeated for credit. Offered as needed. (1-3 semester hours)

Business

BUS 100. Principles of Business
This course emphasizes on the introduction to the business (profit and non-profit) and how it plaus a collaborative role amongst all the related functions in an organization accomplishing overall business objectives. Students will be introduced to key concepts in finance, marketing, production, and other functional management areas. Every Fall semester. (3 semester hours)

BUS 111. Personal Financial Management
Personal Financial Management teaches students the skills they need to make informed financial decisions in their life. Topics include transactional accounts, savings, loans, credit cards, mortgages and basic investments. Credit score management and living within one’s means will be recurring themes. Offered annually. (3 semester hours)

BUS 201. Principles of Management
Introduction to management. Topics include overview of the management process, management theory, the environment of business, planning and strategy, management functions, and organization design. Offered annually fall semester. (3 semester hours)

BUS 202. Principles of Marketing
An analytical study of marketing fundamentals, with attention given to marketing as a business function, policies and institutions involved in the distribution of goods, product development, pricing and consumer behavior. Prerequisite: Econ 101, ECON 102 and BUS 201. Offered alternate fall semesters. (3 semester hours)

BUS 203. Social Entrepreneurship
A practical and theoretical introduction to the field of social entrepreneurship in which entrepreneurs are using business methods to help solve social challenges often ignored by commerce. Topics include: developing initiatives to make a positive social impact, interpreting the underlying mission of B corporations, and comparing and contrasting opportunities for social intrapreneurship. Offered alternate Spring semester. (3 semester hours)

BUS 213. Principles of Accounting I
An introduction to basic bookkeeping principles, including analysis of transactions, journal entries, posting to ledger accounts, computer applications, and preparation of the trial balance, income statement, balance sheet, and cash flow statements. Offered annually fall semester. (3 semester hours)

BUS 214. Principles of Accounting II
A study of those accounting concepts employed by internal management. Cost-volume-profit relationships, budgeting, cost accounting, capital planning, and price estimating are some of the topics covered. Prerequisite: BUS 213 or equivalent. Offered alternate spring semesters. (3 semester hours)

BUS 220. International Business
This course covers the socio-economic, political, cultural, and legal environments in which international business decisions are made. The course develops skill in methods and strategies of conducting international and multinational business in a global context. Prerequisite: ECON 101 and/or ECON 102 or BUS 201. Offered alternate spring semesters. (3 semester hours)

BUS 230. Introduction to Human Resource Management
Principles of managing personnel in an organization. Topics include hiring, training, evaluating and compensating employees. Prerequisite: BUS 201. Offered annually fall semester. (3 semester hours)

BUS 231. Principles of Project Management
This course will introduce students to project management fundamentals, with an emphasis on planning. Students will acquire knowledge on areas such as project life cycles, organization and charters, work breakdown structures, responsibility matrixes, and the planning, budgeting and scheduling of systems. Prerequisites: Bus 201 and Math 151. Every Fall semester. (3 semester hours)

BUS 250. Innovation, Creative Problem Solving
Students learn a creative problem solving methodology consisting of developing empathy, prototyping process, collaboration, iteration, and feedback. The objective is to enable students to address challenges in business and other disciplines, such as the social and physical sciences. Offered annually. (3 semester hours)

BUS 253. Investment Management & Strategies
An introduction to investments, markets asset classes and account types, combined with methodologies to develop investment strategies. Emphasis on practical knowledge in order to make personal investment decisions and guide the Wells Affiliates Portfolio. Prerequisite: BUS 111 and BUS 213. Offered annually. (3 semester hours.)

BUS 302. Brand Management
Brand management is the discipline that links strategic business objectives, marketing, and operations. The fundamental focus of this course is to deliver theoretical and practical understanding of brand management in order to leverage marketing efficiencies in organizations. High performance companies (for-profit or not-for-profit) understand the importance of their brand and actively manage brand equity. This course will address the importance of brands building, measuring, and managing. Prerequisite: Econ 101, Econ 102, Bus 201, and Bus 202. Offered alternate Spring semester. (3 semester hours)

BUS 303. Entrepreneurship & Small Business Management
A practical and theoretical introduction to the issues faced by small business people. Topics include: establishing and funding the business or social organization, finance, marketing and personnel management. Prerequisite: BUS 213, BUS 201. Offered annually. (3 semester hours)

BUS 304. Business Analytics
Business Analytics is the study of data through statistical and operations analysis, the formation of predictive models, application of optimization techniques and the communication of these results to customers, business partners and colleague executives. Students will master the skills of data analysis, modeling, and spreadsheet use with BUSINESS ANALYTICS when making business decisions in areas such as accounting, finance, human resources, marketing and operations management. This quantitative methods course provides students with the tools to succeed with a student-friendly writing style and complete Excel integration. (3 sem. hrs.)

BUS 305. Legal Environment of Business
Introduction to the legal system and business law. Students will learn about the legal system, constitutional and administrative law, contracts, torts, product liability, and employment law. Prerequisite: ECON 102, or POLS 155, or BUS 201, or permission of instructor. Offered annually. (3 semester hours)

BUS 310. Corporate Finance
A study of the theory and practice of corporate financial decision-making. Topics include investment decisions and securities analysis, capital structure and budgeting, working capital management, and strategic planning. Prerequisite: ECON 101, ECON 102, BUS 201, BUS 213. Offered alternate fall semesters. (3 semester hours)

BUS 350. Business Strategy
A study of the theory and practice of corporate decision-making in areas of markets, products, competitive analysis, organizational design, differentiation, technology and other external and internal factors. Topics are taught using the case-study method. Prerequisite: ECON 101 and ECON 102, BUS 201. Offered annually. (3 semester hours.)

BUS 360. Strategic Marketing and E-commerce
A study of the theory and practice of utilizing databases and the internet to increase the effectiveness of sales and marketing for businesses and fundraising and servicing for social organizations. Topics are taught and extensively illustrated though use of internet. Prerequisite: Econ 101, Econ 102, Bus 201, Bus 202, and Math 151. Offered annually fall semesters (3 semester hours)

BUS 365. Management for a Small Planet
Course provided a unique focus regarding the burgeoning concern for sustainability and sustainable organizational practices. The course looks at how large multinational corporations, as well as smaller organizations, are making substantial commitments to the “triple bottom line” of economic success, social responsibility, and environmental protection. Prerequisite: Econ 220, BUS 201 and BUS 202. Offered annually spring semester. (3 semester hours)

BUS 368. Sales and Sales Management
This course covers the important but increasingly complex skills necessary to both sell effectively and manage a sales force selling physical and intangible goods. Topics are taught and extensively illustrated through case- studies. Prerequisite: BUS 201, BUS 202, MATH 151 or MATH 251. (3 semester hours)

BUS 385. Topics in Contemporary Business Issues
In-depth study of a selected topic in business. Application of economic theories and management principles to current business issues. Topics will vary with student interest, and the course may be taught by visiting faculty. Prerequisite: ECON 101 or ECON 102, and BUS 201. May be repeated for credit with different topics. Offered alternate spring semesters. (2-4 semester hours)

BUS 290/390. Internship in Business
Individually arranged participation in the work of an institution devoted to business. May be repeated for credit. Graded: S/U. Offered every semester. (2-4 semester hours)

BUS 395. Tutorial in Business
In-depth study of an area of special interest. Topic determined jointly by a faculty member and student(s) in consultation. Meets weekly for one hour. May be repeated for credit. Offered as needed. (1 semester hour)

BUS 402. Senior Report in Business & Entrepreneurship
Students complete a senior research report in an acceptable business format to completely explore a topic of current relevance in business or management. Research topic must be approved in advance by Business Center Director. Prerequisite: Completed all Business Major requirements and permission of Business Center Director. Offered annually spring semesters. (4 semester hours)

See also: Economics courses; Costa Rica Business Program

Chemistry

CHEM 107L. General Chemistry
A study of the properties of matter with emphasis upon the relation of properties to structure: atomic theory, chemical bonding, the periodic table, and stoichiometry. Offered annually fall semester. (4 semester hours)

CHEM 108L. Chemical Analysis
The second semester of the introductory chemistry sequence. A study of solutions, solubility, chemical equilibria, acid-base theory, oxidation-reduction reactions, kinetics, and thermodynamics. Quantitative analytical methods, such as volumetric, gravimetric, colorimetric, and electroanalytic techniques will be emphasized in the laboratory. Prerequisite: CHEM 107L. Offered annually spring semester. (4 semester hours)

CHEM 213L. Organic Chemistry I
Structure, nomenclature, physical properties, stereochemistry, reactions, and reaction mechanisms of alkanes, alkyl halides, alkenes, alkynes, alcohols, ethers, and conjugated compounds will be studied. Introduction to infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in structure determination. Prerequisite: CHEM 108L. Offered annually fall semester. (4 semester hours)

CHEM 214L. Organic Chemistry II
A continuation of CHEM 213L. There will be an emphasis on reaction mechanisms, the chemistry of functional groups and the logic of synthesis. Additional topics include an introduction to infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in structure determination. Prerequisite: CHEM 213L. Offered annually spring semester. (4 semester hours)

CHEM 301. Physical Chemistry
Special emphasis on those aspects of the subject pertinent to biology and biochemistry. Gases and liquids; thermodynamics and thermochemistry; properties of solutions; chemical equilibria; electrode potentials; reaction kinetics. Prerequisite: CHEM 213L and MATH 111 and PHYS 111L or permission of instructor. Offered alternate fall semester (3 semester hours)

CHEM 303. Medicinal Chemistry
The chemistry, biological evaluation, and mode of action of representative types of drugs; consideration of structure-activity relationships. Current topics selected for detailed study depend upon the interests of those enrolled in the class. Prerequisite: CHEM 214L or permission of instructor. Offered occasionally. (3 semester hours)

CHEM 308LL. Laboratory in Physical Chemistry
Study of selected physicochemical topics in the laboratory. Examples include calorimetry, bond energies, order in liquid crystals and reaction kinetics. Three hours of laboratory per week. Prerequisite: CHEM 301. Offered alternate fall semester. (1 semester hour)

CHEM 315L. Inorganic Chemistry
A study of the bonding, structure, and reactions of inorganic complexes with particular attention to coordination compounds. Topics to be discussed include atomic structure, ionic and covalent bonding, valence bond theory, molecular orbital theory, and organometallic chemistry. Prerequisite: CHEM 108L or PHYS 212L or permission of instructor. Offered alternate spring semester. (4 semester hours)

CHEM 323L. Biochemistry
A study of the structures of biomolecules and the dynamic aspects of biochemical reactions, especially the structure and reactions of proteins, carbohydrates and lipids, with emphasis on enzyme kinetics and mechanisms, biochemical thermodynamics. Three hours of laboratory per week. Prerequisite: CHEM 214L. Offered alternate fall semester. (4 semester hours)

CHEM 326. Biochemical Pathways
A study of the reactions in the biochemical pathways of living organisms, especially metabolism and anabolism of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins, with an emphasis on regulation of interconnected pathways. Prerequisite: Chem 214L. Offered alternate year. (3 semester hours)

CHEM 327L. Instrumental Analysis
Introduction to modern physicochemical methods of analysis with discussion of the theoretical concepts involved, and the application of these in the laboratory. Prerequisite: CHEM 214L or permission of instructor. CHEM 315L is highly recommended. Offered alternate spring semester. (4 semester hours)

CHEM 331. Solid State Chemistry
A survey of topics in the field of solid state chemistry, including symmetry and group theory, crystallography, crystal lattice packing, and phase diagrams. Particular emphasis will be placed on the relationship of three-dimensional structure to physical and chemical properties. Prerequisite: CHEM 108L or PHYS 212L or permission of instructor. Offered alternate fall semester (3 semester hours)

CHEM 385. Topics in Chemistry
In-depth study of a selected topic in chemistry. May be repeated for credit with different topics. Offered as needed. (2-4 semester hours)

CHEM 395. Tutorial in Chemistry
In-depth study of an area of special interest. Topic determined jointly by a faculty member and student(s) in consultation. Meets weekly for one hour. May be repeated for credit. Offered as needed. (1 semester hour)

CHEM 399. Independent Study in Chemistry
Prerequisite: permission of instructor and approval. May be repeated for credit. Offered every semester. (1-3 semester hours)

See also: ENVR 131L. Physical Geology; HIST 212. Introduction to the History of Science

Communication Studies

COMM 290. Internship in Communications
Participation in a field learning experience with a newspaper, magazine, radio, television station, publishing house, advertising agency, or a public relations department. Application to the organization, travel, and living costs and arrangements, are the responsibility of the student. Principally intended for students with a communications minor. Prerequisite: at least one course in the communications minor, preferably FMS 270, or SOC 331, and permission of instructor. Graded: S/U. Offered as needed. (2-4 semester hours)

COMM 390. Advanced Internship in Communications
Participation in a field learning experience with a newspaper, magazine, radio, television station, publishing house, advertising agency, or a public relations department. Application to the organization, travel, and living costs and arrangements, are the responsibility of the student. Principally intended for students with a communications minor. Prerequisite: at least one course in the communications minor including one prior communications internship and permission of instructor. May be repeated for credit. Graded: S/U. Offered as needed. (2-4 semester hours)

COMM 395. Tutorial in Communication Studies
In-depth study of an area of special interest. Topic determined jointly by a faculty member and student(s) in consultation. Meets weekly for one hour. Offered as needed. (1 semester hour)

See also: Journalism Minor; SOC 331. Mass Media and Society; THDA 201. Arts Management

Computer Science

CS 103. Scientific, Computational, and Statistical Software
A hands-on introduction to a variety of software packages useful for mathematical and statistical analysis. This is a half-semester course. Prerequisite: permission of instructor. Graded: S/U. Offered occasionally. (1.5 semester hours)

CS 105. HTML
An introduction to web page design and construction using the Hypertext Markup Language (HTML). This is a self-scheduled, half-semester course in which the student is responsible for completing a series of tutorials and a project. Graded: S/U. Offered every semester. (1.5 semester hours)

CS 107. Modeling Dynamic Systems
Investigation of dynamic system modeling using Stella software. Systems studied will include population growth, predator-prey systems, global energy balance, and radioactive decay chains. These are accessible systems, yet typical of real systems which are of relevance in environmental science and elsewhere. This is a self-scheduled, half-semester course in which the student is responsible for completing a series of tutorials and a project. Prerequisite: permission of instructor. Graded: S/U. Offered occasionally. (1.5 semester hours)

CS 108. Excel Spreadsheets
An introduction to Excel spreadsheet software and applications. This is a self-scheduled, half-semester course in which the student is responsible for completing a series of tutorials and a project. Graded: S/U. Offered twice per semester. (1 semester hour)

CS 109. Access Databases
An introduction to Access database software and applications. This is a self-scheduled, half-semester course in which the student is responsible for completing a series of tutorials and a project. Graded: S/U. Offered annually fall semester. (1 semester hour)

CS 131. Programming I: Procedural Methods 
An introduction to computer programming using the procedural language C. The course will include basic data and control structures, an overview of program organization and problem solving using structured programming, and recursion. Offered annually fall semester. (3 semester hours)

CS 132. Programming II: Object Orientation
A continuation of CS 131, introducing object-oriented programming, project-based editing in an IDE, documentation generation, and OO design patterns. Prerequisite: CS 131. Offered annually spring semester. (3 semester hours)

CS 145. Game Design and Development
A non-programming study of theories, practices, and techniques of game creation. The focus will alternate between design and development stages. Please note that this course may not be taken concurrently with CS 345. Offered occassionally. (2 semester hours)

CS 195. Tutorial in C++
Programming in C++. For students who have programming experience equivalent to CS 131, perhaps in another language, and wish to master C++ syntax as preparation for further work in computer science. Prerequisite: Programming experience equivalent to CS 131 and permission of instructor. Graded: S/U. Offered as needed. (1 semester hour)

CS 222. Data Structures
A continuation of CS 131, including more advanced algorithmic development, sorting, and representative data structures. Prerequisite: CS 131. Offered alternated fall semesters, anticipated fall 2013. (3 semester hours)

CS 225. Computer Organization and Assembly Language Programming
A study of computer organization with an emphasis on assembly language programming and operating systems for representative microcomputers. Prerequisite: CS 131. Offered alternate spring semesters, anticipated spring 2015. (3 semester hours)

CS 228. Programming Languages Survey
An introduction to differences among programming languages and commonalities among their features. Students will be introduced to and write basic programs in a handful of modern languages with varying support for static, dynamic, functional, procedural, and object oriented programming. Prerequisite: CS 131 or permission of instructor. Offered alternate fall semesters, anticipated fall 2014. (3 semester hours)

CS 290. Internship in Computer Science
Individually arranged work relating to computers in an industrial, academic, or governmental setting. Primary responsibility rests with the student for making her or his own arrangements in consultation with the instructor. Prerequisite: Three hours or equivalent in computer science and permission of instructor. Graded: S/U. May be repeated for credit. Offered every semester. (2-4 semester hours)

CS 310. Software Engineering
An introduction to the design and implementation of large software systems. Problem solving approaches are integrated with the software life-cycle considerations, including requirements specification, design, coding, and testing. Prerequisite: CS 132. Offered occassionally, anticipated fall 2015. (3 semester hours)

CS 322. Algorithms: Design and Analysis
A study of algorithmic solutions to problems, including techniques used in the design of algorithms, analysis of complexity, and proof of correctness. Usual types of algorithms include greedy algorithms, divide and conquer, flow problems, and dynamic programming. Prerequisite: CS 222, Math 267. Offered alternate spring semesters, anticipated spring 2014. (3 semester hours)

CS 325. Database Systems
An introduction to database management systems with emphasis on the relational model. Topics include the entity-relationship model, relational algebra and calculus, principles of database design, query processing, and file organization. A project will be implemented in a commercial database package. Prerequisite: CS 132. Offered alternate spring semesters, anticipated spring 2014. (3 semester hours)

CS 340. Unix/Linux Systems Administration
An introduction to Unix system administration, network administration, and Linux clusters. Perl is used as the scripting administration tool. Linux, a free Unix implementation on PC, will be used in the lab. Most of the contents are readily applicable to commercial Unix systems. Prerequisite: CS 132. Offered occasionally, anticipated fall 2013. (3 semester hours)

CS 345. GUI Programming
Fundamentals of programming for a graphical environment. Programming topics include event-driven programming, user interface creation, responder chains, the Model-View-Controller pattern, and software library use. Students will implement a game or application using a framework such as Cocoa, flash, or Swing. Prerequisite: CS 132 required; CS 228 recommended. Offered alternate spring semesters, anticipated spring 2015. (3 semester hours)

CS 285/385. Topics in Computer Science
In-depth study of a selected topic in computer science. Past topics have included: Discrete Mathematics with Computer Applications; Network Architecture and Programming. May be repeated for credit with different topics. Offered as needed. (3 semester hours)

CS 390. Advanced Internship in Computer Science
Individually arranged work relating to computers in an industrial, academic, or governmental setting mainly for advanced students. Primary responsibility rests with the student for making her or his own arrangements in consultation with the instructor. Prerequisite: CS 290 and permission of instructor. Graded: S/U. May be repeated for credit. Offered every semester. (2-4 semester hours)

CS 395. Tutorial in Computer Science
In-depth study of an area of special interest. Topic determined jointly by a faculty member and student(s) in consultation. Meets weekly for one hour. May be repeated for credit. Offered as needed. (1 semester hour)

CS 399. Independent Study in Computer Science
Prerequisite: permission of instructor and approval. May be repeated for credit. Offered every semester. (1-3 semester hours)

See also:MATH 267. Discrete Mathematics I; MATH 301. Applied and Computational Mathematics; PHYS 221L. Principles of Electronics  

Creative Writing

CREA 271. Short Story Writing
Practice in fiction writing, including exercises in point-of-view, dialogue, setting a scene, and introducing characters. Emphasis will be on student writing in a workshop format, but stories by outside authors, including visiting writers, will also be studied. Prerequisite: ENGL 104 or ENGL 105 or equivalent and permission of instructor. Offered annually spring semester. (3 semester hours)

CREA 272. Poetry Writing
Practice in writing poems, with discussion focusing on imagery, rhythm, voice, and aspects of formal construction. Emphasis will be on student poetry in a workshop format, but poems by outside authors, including visiting writers, will also be studied. Prerequisite: ENGL 104 or ENGL 105 or equivalent. Offered annually fall semester. (3 semester hours)

CREA 275. Creative Nonfiction
Practice in writing creative nonfiction, with emphasis on student essays in a workshop format. Discussion will focus on elements of craft, style, and discovery of individual voice and subject. Work by outside authors, including visiting writers, will also be studied. Prerequisite: ENGL 104 or ENGL 105 or equivalent. Offered annually. (3 semester hours)

CREA 371. Advanced Fiction Writing
Advanced work in fiction writing for those who have distinguished themselves in CREA 271. Workshops and conferences. Some classes to be taught by visiting writers. Prerequisite: CREA 271 and permission of instructor. Offered alternate years. (3 semester hours)

CREA 372. Advanced Poetry Writing
Advanced work in poetry writing for those who have distinguished themselves in CREA 272. Workshops and conferences. Some classes to be taught by visiting poets. Prerequisite: CREA 272 and permission of instructor. Offered alternate years. (3 semester hours)

CREA 375. Advanced Creative Nonfiction
Advanced work in creative nonfiction writing for those who have distinguished themselves in CREA 275, workshops and conferences. Some classes to be taught by visiting writers. Prerequisite: CREA 275 and permission of instructor. Offered alternate years. (3 semester hours)

See also: Courses of Instruction in English; Advanced Studies in England (Bath); University of Stirling; University of York; FMS 281. Film and Literature; OCS 215. London Theatre

Criminal Justice

CRIM 115. Introduction to Criminology
This course critically examines the development of classical and contemporary theories of crime, historical and contemporary crime trends in the U.S., official data sources, and the criminal justice system. Offered every Fall semester. (3 semester hours)

CRIM 201. Juvenile Justice
While young people have always been involved in rule-breaking behavior, it was not until the early 19th century that the concept of the juvenile delinquent took shape. Through reading and discussion, we trace the development of this social category and explore the criminal justice system’s response to this particular type of offender. (3 sem. hrs.)

CRIM 285/385. Special Topics in Criminal Justice
In-depth study of a selected topic in crime. May be repeated for credit with different topics. Offered as needed. (2-4 semester hours)

CRIM 290. Internship in Criminal Justice
Individually arranged participation in work of institutions devoted to social control or criminal justice. The setting may include prisons, police departments, the courts, etc. Costs and arrangements are the responsibility of the student. Graded: S/U. Offered every semester. (3-4 semester hours)

CRIM 301. Criminal Justice
This course provides an overview of the U.S. criminal justice system. Topics will include the development of law, the enforcement of law by the police, the determination of guilt and innocence by the courts, and sentencing. Prerequisite: CRIM 115 or Sophomore standing or POI. Offered every Fall semester. (3 semester hours)

CRIM 302. Corrections
This course examines the history, development, and current status of the U.S. correctional system. Topics will include the correctional system’s efforts at punishing and/or rehabilitating offenders through incarceration (e.g., jail, prison, and other residential facilities), probation, and parole. Prerequisite: CRIM 115 or sophomore standing or POI. Offered every Spring semester. (3 semester hours)

CRIM 303. Comparative Systems of Social Control
The study of Criminal Justice in contemporary society requires a focus on the diverse institutions and mechanisms of justice and social control that exist throughout the developed and developing world. Through a cross-cultural comparative approach, the course will explore contemporary topics in international law, including genocide, caste-system, transnational crimes. Prerequisite: CRIM 115, CRIM 301, or POI. (3 sem. hrs.)

CRIM 390. Internship in Criminal Justice
Individually arranged participation in work of institutions devoted to social control or criminal justice. The setting may include prisons, police departments, the courts, etc. Students will develop at a more advanced level the skills and techniques demanded for in a previous criminal justice internship. Costs and arrangements are the responsibility of the student. Graded: S/U. Offered every semester. (3-4 semester hours)

CRIM 399. Independent Study in Criminal Justice
Individually arranged readings and assignments in a focused area within criminal justice arranged in consultation with the minor coordinator. Prerequisite: permission of instructor and approval. Offered every semester. (1-3 semester hours)

CRIM 401. Senior Research Seminar
This course requires seniors majoring in Criminal Justice to prepare an essay based on class work and original individual research and to present this work to the campus community. Prerequisite: Senior Criminal Justice majors. Every Spring semester. (4 semester hours)

Dance

DANC 106. Get Moving!
Students explore concepts of efficient and expressive movement, expand their movement capabilities and understanding, and build a foundation for sports and dance activities. Studio work in guided improvisation and Bartenieff Fundamentals™ is supported by discussions, readings, and videotapes. Offered alternate spring semesters. (3 semester hours)

DANC 205. Modern Dance Technique I
Foundations of Western modern dance technique, for less experienced dancers. Students work from an anatomical and movement analysis perspective to improve alignment, strength, flexibility, dynamic range, style, expressiveness. Introduces a range of contemporary techniques. Satisfies physical education activity requirement. May be repeated for credit. Offered annually fall semester. (2 semester hours)

DANC 206. Ballet Technique I
Foundations of classical ballet technique, for less experienced dancers. Develops alignment, strength, flexibility, dynamic range, style, expressiveness. Articulation of Russian and Italian ballet styles. Satisfies physical education activity requirement. May be repeated for credit. Offered annually. (2 semester hours)

DANC 209. Jazz Dance Technique
Foundations of jazz dance technique, including rhythm, isolations, and mobility, with emphasis on the classical jazz styles of Luigi and Giordano. Develops coordination, strength, flexibility, dynamic and stylistic range, cardiovascular conditioning and endurance. Satisfies physical education activity requirement. May be repeated for credit. Offered annually. (1 semester hour)

DANC 279. Rehearsal and Performance/Dance (Student)
Performing, stage managing, or serving as assistant choreographer for a student senior thesis work in dance. Experiential learning: students develop performance skills, discipline, collaborative leadership ability, and an understanding of theatrical production. Graded: S/U. May be repeated for credit. (1-3 semester hours)

DANC 281. Rehearsal and Performance/Dance
Developing and learning choreography for the faculty dance concert. Students rehearse 5-8 hours per week for 8-10 weeks. Two to three performances and formal critique. Hands-on experience of the creative process that develops performance skills, discipline, collaborative leadership, and an understanding of theatrical production. Prerequisite: permission of instructor; corequisite for performers: any dance technique class. May be repeated for credit. Offered annually spring semester. (1-3 semester hours)

DANC 305. Modern Dance Technique II
In depth study of principles and techniques of modern dance, for more experienced dancers. Further develops physical skills, performance presence, musicality. Students study and compare a range of contemporary techniques (Cunningham, Limón, Hawkins) from a Laban Movement Analysis perspective. Satisfies physical education activity requirement. Prerequisite: DANC 205 or DANC 206 or DANC 207 or DANC 209 or permission of instructor. May be repeated for credit. Offered annually spring semester. (2 semester hours)

DANC 306. Ballet Technique II
In depth study of principles and techniques of classical ballet, for more experienced dancers. Further develops alignment, strength, flexibility, dynamic range, style, expressiveness. Emphasis on both historical perspective and current developments in ballet training, as well as musicality and performance quality. Satisfies physical education activity requirement. Prerequisite: DANC 205 or DANC 206 or permission of instructor. May be repeated for credit. Offered annually. (2 semester hours)

DANC 316. Dance History
A cross-cultural study of Western and non-Western theatrical and ritual dance, with attention to selected choreographers, performers, and theorists. Students improve ability to perceive, analyze, and articulate the visual-kinesthetic experience of dance. Movement analysis theory and issues in dance criticism explored by viewing live and recorded performances. Prerequisite: any 100-level course in theatre, dance, music, art history, or studio art; or permission of instructor. Offered alternate years. (3 semester hours)

DANC 325. Dance Composition and Laban Movement Analysis
Basic principles of Laban Movement Analysis Theory, and their application through Bartenieff Fundamentals exercises and choreography. Students will compose, perform, teach, analyze and notate their original choreography as well as selected masterworks. Prerequisite: THDA 100 or a dance technique class or permission of instructor. Offered alternate years. (3 semester hours)

DANC 330. Pointe Technique
In depth study and practice of technique en pointe in Western classical ballet, for experienced dancers. Develops strength, precision, agility, musicality, and an awareness of classical style and repertory. Satisfies physical education activity requirement. Prerequisite: permission of instructor. May be repeated for credit. Offered every semester. (1 semester hour)

DANC 335. Women Making Dance
An in-depth study of dance making by influential women artists. Critical reading of major choregraphic works, combined with movement study, will explore themes of nature, rebellion, heroism, and ritual. No dance experience required. Prerequisite: Any visual or perfoming arts course. Offered alternate years (3 semester hours)

DANC 349. Advanced Rehearsal and Performance/Dance (Student)
Performing at an advanced level, stage managing, or service as assistant choreographer for a student senior thesis work in dance. Students further develop performance skills, discipline, collaborative leadership ability, and an understanding of theatrical production. Prerequisite: permission of instructor; corequisite: for performers, any dance technique class. Graded: S/U. May be repeated for credit. Offered annually. (1-3 semester hours)

DANC 350. Advanced Rehearsal and Performance/Dance
Developing and learning choreography for faculty dance concert at the advanced level. Opportunity to work with guest artists, and further develop performance and leadership skills. Students rehearse 5-8 hours per week for 8-10 weeks. Two to three performances and formal critique. Prerequisite: permission of instructor; corequisite for performers: any dance technique class. May be repeated for credit. Offered annually spring semester. (1-3 semester hours)

DANC 395. Tutorial in Dance
One hour tutorial in dance; selected topics. Recent topics include: Teaching Dance; Advanced Dance Studies; Advanced Solo Repertory; Advanced Choreography; Bodywork. May be repeated for credit with different topics. Offered as needed. (1 semester hour)

See also: Theatre and Dance Major; ARTS 310. Women and the Arts; MUS 108. Musical Theatre in American Society; MUS 210. World Music; Theatre (THEA) courses; Theatre and Dance (THDA) courses

Economics

ECON 101. Principles of Macroeconomics
A survey of the basic principles of economic analysis and their application in an examination of the structure and functioning of the market economy, with emphasis on the problems of inflation and unemployment. Offered annually fall semester. (3 semester hours)

ECON 102. Principles of Microeconomics
A survey of basic microeconomic concepts with emphasis on the concepts of supply and demand, production, and distribution. Special attention will be paid to ideas of competition, market structure, efficiency, and equity using examples from current policy discussions. Offered annually spring semester. (3 semester hours)

ECON 209. Introduction to Political Economy
An analysis of economic theories focusing on the processes of production and accumulation within institutional and political contexts. Topics include the labor theory of value, monopoly capitalism, and the social structure of accumulation. Prerequisite: ECON 101 or ECON 102, or INTL 151 or PHIL 240 or POLS 155. Offered alternate years. (3 semester hours)

ECON 220. Environmental Economics
Environmental Economics applies the fundamental postulates of general equilibrium theory to environmental problems. Topics include: Pareto optimality and externalities; the use of market and non-market incentives in equating social and private costs, including marginal methods and benefit-cost analysis. Prerequisite: ECON 102. Offered alternate years. (3 semester hours)

ECON 233. Economics of Health and Medical Care
A critical examination of the important health and medical care issues through economic analysis. Emphasis will be placed on the increasingly common questions and dilemmas of efficiency, access to care and fairness in the financing and delivery of medical services. Offered alternate years. (3 semester hours)

ECON 255. The Political Economy of Globalization
The world economy from the standpoint of producing and distributing a surplus. Topics include classical theories of imperialism, global finance, and global and domestic economies in an era where economic growth is limited by peak oil and climate change. Prerequisite: ECON 101 or ECON 102 or INTL 151. Offered alternate years. (3 semester hours)

ECON 286. Money, Banking, and Capital Markets
A study of the functions of money, the operations of commercial and central banking, and the operations of money and capital markets with emphasis on corporate equities, government securities, and municipal bonds. The roles of financial intermediaries and government will also be considered. Prerequisite: ECON 101. Offered alternate years. (3 semester hours)

ECON 290. Internship in Economics and Business
Students are encouraged to discover for themselves the use of economic principles and techniques in various institutional settings, including research, institutes, government agencies, banks, corporations, etc. Prerequisite: ECON 101, or ECON 102, or permission of instructor. Graded: S/U. Offered as needed. (2-4 semester hours)

ECON 295. Technology and the Labor Process
A study of the evolution of systems of management control from a historical and critical perspective. The course focuses on interrelations of technological change and work organization, as well as the effects of managerial choices upon broader economic performance. Prerequisite: ECON 101 or ECON 102 or SOC 228. Offered alternate years. (3 semester hours)

ECON 302. Managerial Economics
An application of economic theory to real world problems of management, focusing particularly on how supply and demand, marginal analysis, opportunity cost, and maximization fit into a world of profit and loss statements, capital budgets, and multiple goals. Prerequisite: ECON 102 and MATH 111 or exemption or higher-level course in calculus. Offered alternate fall semesters. (3 semester hours)

ECON 303. Intermediate Microeconomic Theory
A study of optimal allocation of resources in a price system under a pure competitive market structure: demand analysis, production and cost relationships, general equilibrium, and an introduction to welfare economics. Prerequisite: ECON 101, ECON 102, and MATH 111 or exemption or higher-level course in calculus. Offered annually fall semester. (3 semester hours)

ECON 304. Public Finance
An examination of the economics of the public sector. Emphasis will be given to the economic analysis of government expenditure and taxation policies. Prerequisite: ECON 101 and/or ECON 102. Offered alternate years. Offered fall ’12. (3 semester hours)

ECON 306. Intermediate Macroeconomic Theory
A study of alternative theories of the nation’s income, employment, and price level, in relation to private consumption, investment expenditures, public expenditure, and taxation. Prerequisite: ECON 101 and ECON 102. Offered annually spring semester. (3 semester hours)

ECON 314. Econometrics
A study of the derivation and application of statistical methods used in economic research. The focus of the course is on economic estimation and regression analysis, although other methods such as analysis of variance are examined. Three will be extensive applications of the techniques developed in the course to economic problems. Prerequisite: ECON 101 and/or ECON 102 and MATH 111 or MATH 151 or MATH 251. Offered alternate years. (4 semester hours)

ECON 325. Ecological Economics and Political Ecology
This course models the economy as a sub-system of a larger ecosystem, and addresses questions such as optimal scale, investments in natural capital, sustainability, and thermodynamic limits to growth. Sustainable development is treated within the historical context of uneven development. Prerequisite: ECON 102 or ENVR 101L. Offered alternate years. (3 semester hours)

ECON 326. Energy and the Economy
This course focuses upon the history of energy’s role in the transformation from pre-industrial to contemporary society. The analytical framework includes theories of political economy, the energy return on investment, and the internal and biophysical limits to economic growth. Prerequisite: Econ 101 or Econ 102 or Envr 101. Offered alternate years. (3 semester hours)

ECON 330. The World Economy: Trade and Finance
An analysis of how the world economy, including international economic interdependence, works. Theories and models will be studied concerning trade and financial issues such as the political economy of free trade versus protectionism, foreign direct investment and foreign exchange markets. Prerequisite: ECON 101 or ECON 102. Offered alternate years. (3 semester hours)

ECON 340. History of Economic Analysis
The evolution of economic intellectual history from pre-capitalist doctrines until the 20th century. Course will emphasize the development of theories of value and price, production, and distribution, with special emphasis given to the labor theory of values. Prerequisite: ECON 101 or ECON 102. Offered alternate years. (3 semester hours)

ECON 350. Economics of Developing Countries
A survey of the various economic theories of structural change and growth in developing nations. Particular attention will be paid to the issues of measurement of human welfare and the global distribution of resources. Prerequisite: ECON 101 or ECON 102. Offered alternate years. (3 semester hours)

ECON 385. Topics in Contemporary Economic Problems
In-depth study of a selected topic in economics. This course applies economic reasoning to a changing set of specific social and/or theoretical issues. Topics will be selected on the basis of student and faculty interest. Past topics have included: An Economic History of the Great Depression. Prerequisite: ECON 101 or ECON 102. May be repeated for credit with different topics. Offered as needed. (2-4 semester hours)

ECON 390. Advanced Internship in Economics and Business
In an institutional setting of their choice, students are provided with an opportunity to apply more advanced economic concepts and analysis in a practical context. Prerequisite: ECON 101 and ECON 102, and ECON 303 and ECON 306 or ECON 290. Graded: S/U. Offered as needed. (2-4 semester hours)

ECON 395. Tutorial in Economics
In-depth study of an area of special interest. Topic determined jointly by a faculty member and student(s) in consultation, meets weekly for one hour. May be repeated for credit. Offered as needed. (1 semester hour)

ECON 399. Independent Study in Economics and Business
Prerequisite: permission of instructor and approval. May be repeated for credit. Offered as needed. (1-3 semester hours)

ECON 402. Senior Seminar in Economics and Management
The seminar explores methods and content of orthodox economics, political economy and the various facets of management thought. Students will present articles from professional journals, prepare for comprehensive exams, and develop and present an original piece of economic or managerial research. Prerequisite: ECON 101 and ECON 102, or MGMT 201 and BUS 303. Offered annually spring semester. (4 semester hours)

See also: Business courses

Education

EDUC 105. Teaching in a Diverse Society
In this course students seek answers to the question “What is an excellent teacher?” and examine what it takes to meet the needs of an increasingly diverse student population in today’s schools. Offered every semester. (3 semester hours)

EDUC 190/290/390. Internship in Education
These courses are individually arranged participation in an educational institution. May be repeated for credit. Graded: S/U. Offered as needed. (2-4 semester hours)

EDUC 215. Issues in Multicultural and English Language Learner Education
This course explores foundational and recent research in multicultural and English language learner education (MC/ELL). Students read a variety of empirical, autobiographical, and practitional-based texts as they develop their understanding of the complex, multi-layered issues related to MC/ELL education in today’s classrooms. Prerequisite: EDUC 105 or permission of Instructor. Offered annually. (3 semester hours)

EDUC 216. The Inclusive Classroom
This course is a study of students with special needs within the context of schools. Topic include: low and high-incidence disabilities, the special education process, English language learners, collaborative relationships, co-teaching, and creating a positive classroom environment. Field experience required. Prerequisite: EDUC 105 or permission of instructor. Offered annually fall semester. (3 semester hours)

EDUC 219. Teaching for Diversity and Social Justice
Students explore the concept of equity-oriented pedagogy in traditional and non-traditional educational settings; the power of infusing curriculum with issues of social justice at the national and international levels; and how teachers can facilitate positive social change, locally and globally. Offered occasionally. (3 semester hours)

EDUC 225. Technology in the Classroom
This course is designed to provide students with the opportunity to interact with digital tools used in today’s classrooms. The course focuses on integrating technology into the teaching process and using technological tools to communicate classroom information. Prerequisite: EDUC 105 or POI. Offered spring semester. (3 semester hours)

EDUC 226. Building Classroom Community
This course will address the current research and practice related to increasing student motivation and developing positive, inclusive classroom communities. We will explore strategies for making your elementary or secondary classrooms a healthy, effective learning environment. Offered annually spring semester. (3 semester hours)

EDUC 275. Using Children’s Literature in the Classroom
In this course students will examine the history, genre, trends, and controversies in children’s literature. Students will acquire the skills needed to critically read a variety of children’s books and to select literature appropriate for diverse educational programs. Prerequisite: EDUC 105 or permission of instructor. Offered annually spring semester. (3 semester hours)

EDUC 285/385. Topics in Education
Past topics have included: Looking Within: Personal Ethnography in the Classroom, Integrating Technology in the Classroom, and Action Research in a Local School. May be repeated for credit with different topics. Offered as needed. (2-4 semester hours)

EDUC 301. Primary Literacy and Diverse Learners
This course will provide students with the instructional methods necessary to teach reading and writing in grades 1 and 2. Students will gain an understanding of developmentally appropriate instructional strategies and assessment techniques geared to meet the needs of diverse learners. Field experience outside of class time is required. Prerequisite: EDUC 105 and junior standing or permission of instructor. Offered annually spring semester. (3 semester hours)

EDUC 302. Literacy for Diverse Upper Elementary Classrooms
This course will provide students with the instructional methods needed to create and implement an effective literacy program for diverse learners in grades 3-6. Students will gain an understanding of developmentally appropriate instruction strategies and assessment techniques. Field experience outside of class time is required. Prerequisite: EDUC 105 and EDUC 301, or permission of instructor. Offered annually fall semester. (3 semester hours)

EDUC 304. Inclusive Instruction and Assessment
This course will focus on important skills that lead to being an effective practitioner in student-centered, inclusive elementary classrooms. You will be studying relevant principles of learning and assessment while developing your skills at lesson, curriculum and assessment design. Prerequisites: Educ 105 and Junior status, or POI. Offered annually fall semester. (3 semester hours)

EDUC 305. Literacy in the Social Studies
This course will prepare students to integrate literacy and social studies instruction in the elementary school classroom. Students will focus on using differentiated literacy strategies to engage elementary school students with high-quality, authentic social studies content and concepts. Prerequisite: Educ 301 and 302 or POI. Co-requisite: Educ 309. Every Fall semester. (3 semester hours)

EDUC 307. Teaching Students with Disabilities
This course will explore instructional planning, assessment and intervention strategies for students with significant disabilities in the general and special education classroom. We will also explore how to support students’ needs and development in context of home and community. Prerequisite: Educ 304 and Educ 216. Co-requisite: Educ 308. Every Spring semester.(3 semester hours).

EDUC 308. Students with Disabilities Practicum
This course must be taken concurrently with Educ 307 (Teaching Students with Disabilities). Students will spend 40 hours supporting students with disabilities in local general and special education classrooms. Prerequisite: Educ 301, Educ 304. Co-requisite: Educ 307. Every Spring semester. (1 semester hour)

EDUC 309. Elementary Methods Practicum
This course must be taken concurrently with Educ 305 and Educ 405. Students will spend 40 hours supporting students in local general education classrooms. Prerequisite: Educ 302 and Educ 307. Co-requisite: Educ 305 and Educ 405. Every Spring semester. (1 semester hour)

EDUC 331. Reading and Writing in the Content Areas I
This course will provide students with instructional methods for teaching reading and writing through content in grades 7-12. Field experience outside of class time is required. Prerequisite: EDUC 105 and junior standing or permission of instructor. Offered annually fall semester. (3 semester hours)

EDUC 332. Reading and Writing in the Content Areas II
This course is designed to analyze the instruction and assessment of reading and writing in the content areas for grades 7-12. Field experience outside of class time is required. Prerequisite: EDUC 105 and EDUC 331, or permission of instructor. Offered annually spring semester. (3 semester hours)

EDUC 395. Tutorial in Education
In-depth study of an area of special interest. Topic determined jointly by a faculty member and student(s) in consultation. Meets weekly for one hour. May be repeated for credit. Offered as needed. (1 semester hour)

EDUC 399. Independent Study in Education
Students who wish to pursue research and/or fieldwork in an educational setting may submit plans for doing so to the appropriate faculty member. Prerequisite: permission of instructor and approval. May be repeated for credit. Offered every semester. (1-3 semester hours)

EDUC 405. Elementary Methods: Teaching Math and Science
This course explores instructional methods and assessment strategies within math/science, grades 1-6. Specific focus is on developing mathematical/scientific understandings through differentiation and the formative assessment practices of observing, documenting and reflecting on students’ responses. Prerequisite: EDUC 105 and junior standing or permission of instructor. Offered annually fall semester. (3 semester hours)

EDUC 406. Instructional Strategies for Secondary Education
Objectives, methods and materials, content, evaluation, and organization of the several subject matter areas of the secondary school. Students will participate with master teachers to create and implement curricula in their subject matter. Prerequisite: EDUC 105 and junior standing or permission of instructor. Offered annually spring semester. (3 semester hours)

EDUC 408. Student Teaching Reflective Seminar
An accompaniment to student teaching, this seminar provides a forum for reflection and analysis of teaching, and an opportunity to discuss essential aspects of the profession. Faculty provide support for the edTPA process and the development of a culminating portfolio. Taken concurrently with EDUC 410. Prerequisite: permission of instructor. Offered every semester. (2 semester hours)

EDUC 410. Student Teaching: Preparation and Analysis
Full-time student teaching in selected elementary and secondary settings; supervision by a public/private school teacher and a representative of the College faculty. (Students are expected to provide their own transportation to student teaching sites.) Prerequisite: prior approval of the education faculty. Offered every semester. (12 semester hours)

See also: PSY 210. Childhood Development; PSY 318. Adolescent Development

English

ENGL 104. Introduction to Literature
This course is for students who love to read and write about plays, novels, and poems. In addition to learning rhetorical terms for analyzing literature, we will also explore theories of reading and writing. Required for students majoring in English. (3 semester hours)

ENGL 105. British Literature 1100-1800
A survey of works in British literature from the Middle Ages through 1800, with a focus on the historical development of literary forms, genres and subjects. Texts will range from Arthurian romance, to Elizabethan drama, to pre-Romantic poetry of sensibility. Offered annually spring semester. (3 semester hours)

ENGL 202. Studies in Literature and Film
Topic to be announced. Past topics have included Jane Austen and E.M. Forster. May be repeated for credit with different topics. Prerequisite: SC 101 or ENGL 104 or ENGL 105, or transfer equivalent. Offered alternate years. (3 semester hours)

ENGL 214. Women in English Renaissance Literature
Literature by and about women in Renaissance England, including pamphlets in the debate over women, plays by Jonson and Dekker, poetry by Lanyer and Philips. Topics include sex, marriage, spirituality, and women in public life. Prerequisite: SC 101 or ENGL 104 or ENGL 105, or transfer equivalent. Offered alternate years. (3 semester hours)

ENGL 215. American Literature and Culture
This course is designed to introduce students to a variety of American literary texts between 1776 and the present. Reading novels, poems, plays, and essays will orient students to the historical and cultural terrain of American writing. ENGL 104 is recommended but not required, and the course is designed to complement ENGL 105: Survey of British Literature: Middle Ages to 1800 and ENGL 250: Survey of British Literature: 1880 to the Present. (3 semester hours)

ENGL 225. Shakespeare
Approximately 8 plays, representative of the range of Shakespeare’s dramatic career. Prerequisite: SC 101 or ENGL 104 or ENGL 105, or transfer equivalent. Offered annually. (3 semester hours)

ENGL 240. Adolescence and the Media
Through fiction, film, cultural analyses, documentaries, and computer games, this course examines adolescence as a generic category in consumer culture and critiques assumptions about “normative” behavior among young adults. Prerequisite: SC 101. (3 semester hours)

ENGL 245. The Maker’s Craft: Form in Poetry
An exploration of how form contributes to meaning through study of traditional poems, including sonnets, villanelles, and dramatic monologues. Students will analyze as well as write poems in various forms. Visiting writers and their works will be featured in classes. Prerequisite: SC 101, or first-year students with English AP 4 or 5, or permission of instructor. Offered alternate years. (3 semester hours)

ENGL 250. British Literature 1800 to the Present
This course introduces students to the major literary texts produced by British writers between 1800 and the present. Texts to be drawn from the Romantic, Victorian, Edwardian, Modern, and Post-Modern periods. Non-majors welcome. This course is designed to follow (and complement) ENGL 105 British Literature 1100-1800. Offered annually. (3 semester hours)

ENGL 285/385. Topics in English
In-depth study of a selected topic in English. Past topics have included: Erotic and Pornographic Literature, Medieval Romance: The Otherworld, Writers Reading Writers, and Poetry and Science. May be repeated for credit with different topics. Offered occasionally. (3-4 semester hours)

ENGL 290. Internship in English
Individually arranged work experience in publishing, journalism, library work, and other fields or areas related to bibliography, literature, or skills in writing. Prerequisite: one course in English and permission of instructor. Graded: S/U. Offered every semester. (2-4 semester hours) Prerequisite to 300-level courses: any 200-level literature course (English or non English language) or exemption.

ENGL 301. Reading Translations
Study of the theory and practice of literary translation pursuing the question, "How should we read translations?" Readings include canonical translation theory and English translations of international poetry. Offered alternate years. (3 semester hours)

ENGL 302. Special Topics in the American Novel
Study of the 19th and 20th century novel in a thematic or “issue-oriented” context. Past topics have included: Greed! May be repeated for credit with different topics. Offered alternate years. (3 semester hours)

ENGL 304. Special Topics in American Drama
This course provides an introduction to major developments in American theatre, from its inception in the early 1800s to the present. Special emphasis is given to the perspectives of Asian American, African American, Hispanic American, Native American, and LGBT-authored play scripts. (3 semester hours)

ENGL 305. Gender, Power, Literature, Film
Beginning with the Gothic tradition of the “monstrous other”, this course challenges interpretations of masculinity and femininity in film and literature. Students will examine how each creative form both constitutes and undermines the myths of normative gender rolls and identities. Prerequisite: one 200-level ENGL course or FMS 101. Offered alternate fall semesters. (3 semester hours)

ENGL 319. Renaissance English Poetry
The 16th and 17th centuries produced some of the most powerful love poetry in English, from the religious to the erotic. We will explore poetic and cultural conventions of love in Wyatt, Sidney, Shakespeare, Donne, Philips and others. Prerequisite: ENGL 105 or any 200-level course in literature or permission of instructor. Offered alternate years. (3 semester hours)

ENGL 337. Topics in British Romantic Poetry
Advanced study of the poetry of three or more “major Romantics” (Blake, Wordsworth, Coleridge, Byron, Shelley, Keats). The works of other important representative writers of the period will also be explored. May be repeated for credit with different topics. Offered alternate years. (3 semester hours)

ENGL 349. Special Topics in American Poetry
Advanced study of the writing of from four to six American poets who are significant figures themselves and also represent the literary periods in which they wrote. Past topics have included Major American Poets of the 20th Century. May be repeated for credit with different topics. Offered annually. (3 semester hours)

ENGL 362. Development of the British Novel
The development of the British novel in the eighteenth century, from early fictional modes, such as the psychological, satiric and Gothic, to formal realism. Writers will include Defoe, Richardson, Fielding, Burney and Austen. Offered alternate years. (3 semester hours)

ENGL 363. Special Topics in the British Novel
Study of issues in the 19th and 20th century novel. May be repeated for credit with different topics. Offered alternate years. (3 semester hours)

ENGL 366. Special Topics in British Poetry
Advanced study of the writing of from four to six British poets who are significant figures themselves and also represent the literary periods in which they wrote. Past topics have included: British Victorian Poets. May be repeated for credit with different topics. Offered annually. (3 semester hours)

ENGL 367. Special Topics in Earlier British Drama
Representative tragedies and comedies from Medieval, Tudor-Stuart, Restoration, and 18th century dramatists. May be repeated for credit with different topics. Past topics have included: The Erotics of Home (1550-1800). Offered alternate years. (3 semester hours)

ENGL 380. Writing Literary Criticism: Methods and Theory
A study of literary criticism as a form. Engaging in a series of paper exercises, annotated bibliographies, abstracts, and oral presentations, students start to work on a topic of their choice within the first three weeks of the course, prompted by a text of their choice. This course also explores historical and philosophical questions raised (primarily) during the last fifty years about the acts of reading and writing. Theoretical approaches to literature—“literary theory”—will be drawn from the following critical movements: formalism; structuralism and linguistics; psychoanalysis; Marxism; deconstruction; feminism; queer theory; “new” historicism; post-colonialism; and ethnic and cultural studies. To ground our theory, we will read the student’s chosen text through different critical lenses. Especially recommended for students who plan to pursue graduate study in English-related professions. Prerequisite: junior or permission of instructor. Offered alternate years. (3 semester hours)

ENGL 390. Advanced Internship in English
Individually arranged work experience in publishing, journalism, library work, and other fields or areas related to bibliography, literature, or skills in writing. Prerequisite: three courses in English, ENGL 290, and permission of instructor. Graded: S/U. Offered every semester. (2-4 semester hours)

ENGL 395. Tutorial in English
In-depth study of an area of special interest. Topic determined jointly by a faculty member and student(s) in consultation. Meets weekly for one hour. May be repeated for credit. Offered as needed. (1 semester hour)

ENGL 399. Independent Study in English
Prerequisite: permission of instructor and approval. May be repeated for credit. Offered every semester. (1-3 semester hours)

ENGL 401. Senior Essay in English
Completion of an extended literary essay by students in the literature concentration, an extended creative project and critical essay by students in the creative writing concentration. Topics must be approved by the department. Students will work with a faculty advisor and participate in workshops. Open only to students in the English major. Offered annually fall semester. (4 semester hours)

See also: Advanced Studies in England (Bath); University of Stirling; University of York; ESL 255/256. English as a Second Language I, II; FMS 281. Film and Literature; HUM 360. Latin American Literature, Revolution, and History; HUM 378. Women and Literature in Latin America; OCS 215. London Theatre

English as a Second Language

ESL 255. English as a Second Language I
Open to international students and taken concurrently with ESL 256, this course focuses on campus life and American culture. Classes include oral work to review specific grammar points and vocabulary, readings on American culture, and analysis of daily written homework. Prerequisite: interview and permission of instructor. Offered annually fall semester. (3 semester hours)

ESL 256. English as a Second Language II
Open to international students and taken concurrently with ESL 255, this course is designed to increase the students’ conversation level beyond rudimentary vocabulary and speech patterns. Class work and exams are mainly oral, focusing on new vocabulary and lengthy explanations. Prerequisite: interview and permission of instructor. Offered annually fall semester. (3 semester hours)

ESL 257. English as a Second Language III
Open to international students, ESL III focuses on the types of writing required in academia: expository, persuasive, narrative, and descriptive. Students work on writing mechanics, development of good topic sentences and thesis statements, organization, etc., advancing from paragraphs to essays. Prerequisite: permission of instructor. Offered annually spring semester. (3 semester hours)

Environmental Science

ENVR 101L. Introduction to Environmental Science
An introduction to the field of environmental science. Includes an analysis of natural resources and the environmental impact of their extraction and use by humans. Environmental quality, pollution, toxicology will be among the topics covered. (4 semester hours)

ENVR 102L. Conservation of Biodiversity
An introduction to the field of conservation science. Local and global aspects of species, ecosystem and landscape conservation will be discussed. Prerequisite: ENVR 101L or BIOL 119L or permission of instructor. (4 semester hours)

ENVR 131L. Physical Geology
The origin, composition, structure, and geological history of the earth. This will include the study of geological processes affecting the earth’s crust and interior, and examination of theories concerning geological phenomena such as origin of mountains and plate tectonics. Meets natural laboratory science distribution requirement. Offered alternate spring semesters. (4 semester hours)

ENVR 195. Tutorial in Geographic Information Systems
A self-guided tutorial in Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Focus is on the development of basic skills relevant to geospatial analysis, such as map symbology, data overlay, and projection. Prerequisite: ENVR 101L and ENVR 102L. Graded: S/U. (1 semester hour)

ENVR 290/390. Internship in Environmental Science
Work relating to environmental policy or science in an academic, governmental, industrial or public interest group setting. Prerequisite for ENVR 290: ENVR 101L or permission of instructor. Prerequisite for ENVR 390: ENVR 290 or permission of instructor. Graded: S/U. Offered every semester. (2-4 semester hours)

ENVR 303. Environmental Impact Assessment
Examination of the process that seeks to predict and mitigate the environmental impacts of proposed development or other projects, and that produces environmental impact statements. The goals, steps, strengths and limitations of various kinds of environmental impact assessments will be discussed. (3 semester hours)

ENVR 340. Sustainable Agriculture
This course will examine the environmental consequences of agriculture as it is practiced today in tropical and temperate regions, and discuss the agroecological basis for tools and techniques designed to address these problems. Prerequisite: ENVR 101L or BIOL 119L or permission of instructor. Offered alternate fall semesters. (3 semester hours)

ENVR 385/385L. Topics in Environmental Science
In-depth study of a selected topic in environmental science. May be repeated for credit with different topics. Past topics have included: Agriculture and the Environment, and Pollution Science. Offered as needed. (3-4 semester hours)

ENVR 399. Independent Study in Environmental Science
Prerequisite: permission of instructor and approval. May be repeated for credit. Offered every semester. (1-3 semester hours)

ENVR 401. Advanced Research in Environmental Science
Independent research on self-designed project overseen by a faculty member in Environmental Science. Course provides experience in designing and conducting research and communicating findings. May be repeated for credit. Offered every semester. (1 semester hours)

ENVR 403. Senior Thesis in Environmental Science
Identification of an original topic and development of a senior research paper or alternative project in environmental science. Preparation and presentation of a paper or project based on independent research and analysis. Work to be conducted in conjunction with a member of the ENVR faculty. Prerequisite: senior standing in ENVR and permission of instructor. Offered annually spring semester. (4 semester hours)

See also: Environmental Science Major for a list of related courses counting toward the major; Study Abroad with the School for Field Studies

Film and Media Studies

FMS 101. Media and Power in American Culture
This course investigates the media’s role in the daily lives of Americans and examines issues of social control, conformity, consumerism, and the politics of desire through detailed analysis of films and television, print media, internet media, and advertising. Offered annually fall semester. (3 semester hours)

FMS 105/205. Practicum for College Publications
This workshop covers the practical aspects of student publications: recruiting and encouraging staff, accepting and giving criticism, managing a budget, selecting material, and basic layout and editing. Offers weekly problem-solving exercises in common issues student journalists face. (1-2 semester hours)

FMS 220. Post-Colonial African Cinema
A study of contemporary Africa through images and representations shaped by African filmmakers. Particular attention will be given to the relationship between cities and rural areas, foreign and national languages, African vs. Western values. Using themes such as immigration, quest for identity, struggle between modernity and tradition, an examination of challenges facing Africa in the post-colonial era. Offered alternate years. (3 semester hours)

FMS 241. Reading Popular Film
An historical and cultural analysis of cinema, emphasizing its origins in popular culture and examining its unique position as the nexus of art and entertainment. Special focus on issues of race, class, gender as well as celebrity and audience. Prerequisite: sophomore standing or permission of instructor. Offered alternate years. (3 semester hours)

FMS 270. Writing for the Mass Media
Workshop in writing for print and online newspapers and magazines. Topics include news writing, editorial and feature writing, and news and editorial blogging. Students will be encouraged to submit their work to on-campus and online media. Prerequisite: SC 101. Offered alternate years. (3 semester hours)

FMS 281. Film and Literature
Film art reflects (on), integrates and develops the concerns and strategies of modern literary narratives and movements. This course explores the work of key filmmakers of world cinema in conjunction with the discussion of relevant (Post-)Modernist literary texts. Offered alternate years. (3 semester hours)

FMS 285/385. Topics in Film and Media Studies
In-depth study of selected topics in film and media studies. May be repeated for credit with different topics. Offered as needed. (3 semester hours)

FMS 290/390. Internship in Film and Media Studies
Individually arranged participation in the work of an institution devoted to film and media studies. May be repeated for credit. Graded: S/U. Offered every semester. (2-4 semester hours)

FMS 315. Only a Game? Sports in Film and Literature
Examines the fiction and film of sports as an offshoot of a $422,000,000,000,000 industry. Discussion will focus on ways in which fiction and film help create and maintain our national ideologies of competition, race, class, and gender. Prerequisite: SC 101. (3 semester hours)

FMS 320. Envisioning “The Other” in Film
Visual stereotypes litter the cultural landscape and help determine how we envision and revision “The Other”. We will examine American films to critique the process of creating and promulgating false images which, somehow, become ‘the truth’.” Prerequisite: FMS 101 or any course at the 200 level. (3 semester hours)

FMS 401. Senior Project in Film and Media Studies
Completion of an extended project focusing on any of the following or the relationship among them: film, film and visual theory, or film history; writing for the mass media, including advertising, convergent journalism, or web journalism. Writing projects may be analytical or original productions. Topics must be approved by the department and students will work with a faculty advisor. Open only to students in the film and media studies major. Offered annually spring semester. (4 semester hour)

See also: Salt Institute for Documentary Studies

First Nations and Indigenous Studies

FNIS 212. Home Lands
This seminar will focus on making a home (on one’s own land or stolen lands?), and the multiple relationships that exist between what sexual minorities call “home” as First Nations people, people in Diaspora, and or immigrants. (3 semester hours)

FNIS 215. The Haudenosaunee and New York State
This course covers the relationship between the Haudenosaunee (Iroquois) Confederacy and Euro-Americans from earliest contact to the 21st century, with particular attention paid to circa 1970 to the present. (3 semester hours)

FNIS 285/385. Topics in First Nations and Indigenous Studies
Selected topics of interest. May be repeated for credit with different topics. Offered as needed. (3 semester hours)

Food Systems

FNIS 285/385. Topics in Sustainable Food Systems
Selected topics of interest. May be repeated for credit with different topics. Offered as needed. (3 semester hours)

FOOD 290. Internship in Sustainable Food
Students will gain experience working in a setting that has some connection to food and reflect on issues of sustainability: organic farms, farmer’s markets, food pantries, farm sanctuaries, etc. Cost and arrangements are the student’s responsibility. Every semester. Grade: S/U. (2-4 semester hours)

French

FREN courses are taught in French.

FREN 101, 102. Introductory French I and II
This course introduces students with little or no French background to France and Francophone culture. Using a communicative approach based on oral exercises in class and written homework, students work on the four language skills: comprehension, speaking, reading and writing. Prerequisite for FREN 101: no more than two years of French in high school; prerequisite for FREN 102: FREN 101 or permission of instructor. Offered annually, 101 in fall, 102 in spring. (4 semester hours each)

FREN 123, 124. Intermediate French I and II
Designed for students with some background in French, these courses explore the cultural contexts of the French/Francophone world through oral practice and written homework. Students develop proficiency through active participation. Prerequisite FREN 102 or three years high school French; those with two years of high school French may take a placement exam to determine enrollment at a higher level. Offered annually, 123 in fall, 124 in spring. (3 semester hours each)

German

GRMN courses are taught in German.

GRMN 101, 102. Elementary German I and II
Development of all four communication skills in German: speaking, understanding, reading, and writing. Essentials of grammar, basic vocabulary, practice speaking and writing German. Information on current social and cultural issues of German-speaking countries. Prerequisite for GRMN 101: no more than two years of German in high school; students with two years of German may take a placement exam to determine enrollment at a higher level. Prerequisite for GRMN 102: GRMN 101 or permission of instructor. Offered annually, 101 in fall, 102 in spring. (4 semester hours each)

GRMN 123, 124. Intermediate German I and II
Designed to further develop a student’s ability to speak, read, and write German. Emphasis on communication skills. Grammar review and vocabulary building. Readings of short stories and texts on social and cultural aspects of German-speaking countries. Prerequisite for GRMN 123: GRMN 102 or Level III or IV of high school German, or permission of instructor. Prerequisite for GRMN 124: GRMN 123 or permission of instructor. Offered annually, 123 in fall, 124 in spring. (3 semester hours each)

GRMN 199/299/399. Independent Study in German
Prerequisite: permission of instructor and approval. May be repeated for credit. Offered as needed. (1-3 semester hours)

See also: The Freie Universität Berlin FU-BEST Program

Health Sciences

HS 100. Introduction to Health Professions
Exploration of skills and knowledge needed for success in the health professions. Conducted within the context of discussion of healthcare systems and health professions. Every Fall semester. (3 semester hours)

HS 109. Community First Aid and Safety
American Red Cross certification includes Community CPR and Standard First Aid. Graded: S/U. Additional fee. Offered every semester. (1 semester hour)

HS 195. Tutorial in Health Sciences
A study of selected topics. (1 semester hour)

HS 290/390. Internship in Health Sciences
These introductory internships provide opportunities for well-qualified students considering careers in the health sciences. Interns will work with health professionals. Each student will give a public presentation of her or his internship upon return to campus. Prerequisite: Permission of Instructor. Grade: S/U. Every semester. (2-4 semester hours)

HS 401. Senior Seminar in Health Sciences
This capstone course covers current topics in the health sciences. Students will write and present original research in the area for discussion amongst the class. Post-graduate career opportunities and how to pursue them will also be considered. Prerequisite: Senior standing. Every Fall semester. (2 semester hours)

Holistic Health Studies

HHS 100. Introduction to Holistic Health Studies
Overview of Hilistic Health Studies as a “learning community” dedicated to personal and planetary well-being and growth. Introduces range of holistic health modalities and certified techniques such as Bartenieff Fundamentals and Alexander Technique. Professionally supervised, hands-on work with fellow students. Every Fall semester. (3 semester hours)

HHS 290/390. Internship in Holistic Health Studies
Individually arranged participation in the work of an institution devoted to Holistic Health. May be repeated for credit. Graded: S/U. Offered every semester. (2-4 sem. hrs)

History

HIST 101. Introduction to World Civilizations, Antiquity to 1650
From the ancient Middle East to the age of European overseas exploration, the survey gives particular emphasis to cultural interaction among world civilizations. Special attention is given to the role of geography, technology, and ideas as forces of change and continuity. Offered alternate years. (3 semester hours)

HIST 103. Introduction to World Civilizations, 1650-Present
From the Portuguese and Spanish voyages of exploration and conquest to space exploration, the survey gives particular emphasis to interaction among world civilizations. Special attention is given to European imperial expansion, technology, and main currents of thought. Offered alternate years. (3 semester hours)

HIST 210. Women and Gender in Europe, 1550-Present
Course surveys both the experiences of women (and men) in European history and various social constructions of gender over time. Using primary documents, historical scholarship, novels, films, and memoirs, we examine the legacy of ancient attitudes towards gender and sexuality; the evolving definitions of feminine and masculine; structures of everyday life; misogyny and witchcraft; sexuality and honor; marriage and family; working-class and middle class distinctions; feminism and social protest; the impact of war and revolution on gender roles; women’s quest for education; individual and collective struggles to transform society; literature and the arts; and LGBTQ issues of the past and present. Offered alternate years. (3 semester hours)

HIST 212. Introduction to the History of Science
A survey of developments in scientific thought, from antiquity to the early 20th century. Offered alternate years. (3 semester hours)

HIST 215. The Growth of Industrial Society, 1750-Present
Examines social, cultural and economic consequences of modernization, from the Industrial Revolution in England to the contemporary “post-industrial” world. Topics include changing nature of work, new roles for women, workers’ responses to change, and current issues of migration, “guest-workers,” and a global economy. Offered alternate years. (3 semester hours)

HIST 228. The Making of Modernity, 1815-1914
Focus on European thought, society, events, and social movements that dominated the tumultous 19th Century and helped create and define what we think of as modernity today. Topics include reactions to the French Revolution and industrial revolution; the development of modern political ideologies; the rise of the bourgeoisie and working classes; social protest, reform, and revolution; urbanization and urban life; nationalism; social Darwinism and global imperialism; changing attitudes towards women, gender, and sexuality; the fascination with the irrational; new notions of leisure and consumption; and the creative thinkers, writers, and innovative artists who challenged the status quo. Offered annually. (3 sem. hrs.)

HIST 241. Interpreting U.S. History I
An analysis of primary documents and secondary sources to arrive at meaningful interpretations of the nation’s past. Topics include colonial development, slavery and racism, Revolution, the expansion of a market economy, changing gender roles, religion and social reform, immigration, westward expansion, and sectional crisis. Offered annually fall semester. (3 semester hours)

HIST 242. Interpreting U.S. History II
An analysis of primary documents and secondary sources to arrive at meaningful interpretations of the nation’s past. Topics include Reconstruction, Industrialization and urbanization, social and political reform, race and ethnicity, changing gender roles, the changing role of government in American life, and the emergence of the United States as a global power. Offered annually spring semester. (3 semester hours)

HIST 245. Civil War and Reconstruction
The Civil War remains the central event in U.S. history. Topics include the origins of the conflict, the impact of “Total War,” the war on the home front, and the promises and failures of Reconstruction. Offered alternate years. (3 semester hours)

HIST 285/385. Topics in History
In-depth study of a selected topic in history. Past topics have included: Japanese Visual Culture; History of Japan; Introduction to Modern China; History of the Samurai; Islam in Central Asia; Geisa; Culture and Everyday Life in Ancient China; and Cinema and City in East Asia. May be repeated for credit with different topics. Offered as needed. (2-4 semester hours)

HIST 290. Internship in History
Individually arranged participation in work of institutions devoted to historical work and practice. Prerequisite: one course in history and permission of instructor. Graded: S/U. Offered as needed. (2-4 semester hours)

HIST 310. Colonial and Revolutionary America
An examination of the American experience from the 17th century to the Revolutionary era. Topics include the clash of cultures, colonial life, the origins of Revolution, the War for Independence, republicanism, the Constitution, and the founding of the Republic. Prerequisite: HIST 241 or permission of instructor. Offered alternate years. (3 semester hours)

HIST 325. The African American Experience
A critical historical examination of the African American experience from enslavement to the modern era. Students will explore the emergence of slavery and race in Early America, the evolution of African American culture, slave life, black abolitionism, emancipation, Reconstruction, migration and urbanization, the freedom struggle during the age of Jim Crow, and the modern Civil Rights Movement. Prerequisite: sophomore standing or above. Offered alternate years. (3 semester hours)

HIST 327. The Gilded Age and Progressive Era
A critical examination of the American experience from Reconstruction through World War I. Students will explore industrialization and the changing world of work, popular culture, the rise of the middle class, gender and the "New Woman," race and immigration, Populism and Progressive reform, imperial expansion, and the American experience in the "Great War." Prerequisite: sophomore standing or above. (3 semester hours)

HIST 328. The Early American Republic
A critical examination of the American experience from the Founding of the Rupublic through the War with Mexico. Students will explore the emergence of popular politics and the party system, the capitalist Market Revolution, religion and the Second Great Awakening, intellectual movements, utopian communities, social reform, slavery and abolitionism, women's rights, and territorial expansion during the age of "Manifest Destiny." Prerequisite: sophomore standing or above. (3 semester hours)

HIST 329. 20th Century Europe
The social, cultural, economic, and political history of Europe, 1900 to the present. Using primary documents, recent historical scholarship, memoirs, documentaries, and feature films, we examine the causes and consequences of World War I and II; the Russian Revolution; the Great Depression; the rise of Nazism, Fascism, and anti-Semitism; the Holocaust; origins of the Cold War; imperialism and decolonization; the social and cultural revolutions of post-WWII period; Eastern European communism; the fall of communism and its aftermath; shifting notions of gender over the century; and terrorism and challenges to tolerance in the multicultural Europe of the late 20th Century. Prerequisite: sophomore standing or above. Offered alternate years. (3 semester hours)

HIST 330. The Enlightenment and The French Revolution
Examines European thought and society from 1685-1815, with an emphasis on France. Topics include the legacy of Enlightenment ideas, scientific revolution, social conditions of “the people,” the French Revolution and its debates, Napoleonic era, and early Romanticism. Prerequisite: sophomore standing or above. Offered alternate years. (3 semester hours)

HIST 335. Popular Culture in Early Modern Europe, 1400-1800
Course examines attitudes, beliefs, and practices of common people, especially peasants and workers. Topics include daily life, religion and magic, witchcraft, folklore, attitudes toward women and sexuality, impact of printing, popular rebellions, relations between “the people” and the elite. Prerequisite: sophomore standing or above. Offered alternate years. (3 semester hours)

HIST 357. Twentieth-Century America
A chronological and thematic examination of the “American Century.” Topics include Industrialization and economic change, race and ethnicity, political and social reform, civil rights, feminism, consumerism, popular culture, war, and America’s place in the world. Prerequisite: HIST 242 or permission of instructor. Offered alternate years. (3 semester hours)

HIST 360. History of American Feminism
The cultural and philosophical context out of which the feminist movement arose in America. Comparison of the 19th and 20th century feminist movements in America, analyzing the reasons for the failure of the former and the rise of the latter. Prerequisite: sophomore standing or above. Offered annually. (3 semester hours)

HIST 361. Voices of African-American Women
Recovering the history of black women from slavery in the 19th century through the Civil Rights movement of the 1960s and current feminist activism. Readings will emphasize slave narratives, memoirs, biographies, and writings by black women. Prerequisite: sophomore standing or above. (3 semester hours)

HIST 372. Colonial Encounters
The cultural and social consequences of European colonialism from the Age of Exploration to the present—incorporating views of both colonizers and colonized. Issues include racism and slavery, women and sexuality, technology and progress, identity and difference, travel, disease, and work. Prerequisite: sophomore standing or above. Offered alternate years. (3 semester hours)

HIST 375. Writing History: Theory and Practice
Explores various ways the past can be approached, analyzed, organized, and written. We ask: how does historical memory function? How should societies remember the past? And who gets to tell those stories? By focusing on specific historical moments, we will consider issues such as perspective, interpretation, narration, and the problematic status of facts, evidence, and periodization. Students also pursue research topics of their own choosing. Required of history students; also relevant for those pursuing creative writing, museum studies, education, and anyone who wants to explore issues of objectivity and subjectivity, and the ways historical knowledge is constructed, organized, and displayed. Prerequisite: sophomore standing or above. Offered annually fall semester. (3 semester hours)

HIST 390. Advanced Internship in History
Individually arranged participation in work of institutions devoted to historical work and practice. Students will develop at a more advanced level the skills and techniques demanded from a previous history internship. Prerequisite: HIST 290 and permission of instructor. Graded: S/U. Offered as needed. (2-3 semester hours)

HIST 395. Tutorial in History
In-depth study of an area of special interest. Topic determined jointly by a faculty member and student(s) in consultation. Meets weekly for one hour. May be repeated for credit. Offered as needed. (1 semester hour)

HIST 399. Independent Study in History
Prerequisite: permission of instructor and approval. May be repeated for credit. Offered every semester. (1-3 semester hours)

HIST 401. Senior Essay in History
Preparation of an essay based on individual research. Prerequisite: senior history major. Offered annually fall semester. (3 semester hours)

HIST 402. Senior Seminar in History
A collaborative seminar for students writing their senior essays. Seniors will meet regularly to discuss research methods and problems, participate in peer editing of drafts, and give presentations of their work. Prerequisite: senior history major. Offered annually fall semester. (1 semester hour)

See also: DANC 316. Dance History; OCS 275. Women and Public Policy Seminars; THEA 315. Theatre History

Humanities

HUM courses are taught in English.

HUM 230. Decolonization & Post-Colonial Worlds
Using a variety of sources such as travel accounts, novels, films, students will place themselves in past colonial worlds and witness the processes and dynamics of de-colonization as they occurred in various places around the globe. (3 semester hours)

HUM 285/385. Topics in Humanities
In-depth study of a selected topic in languages, literatures, and cultures. May be repeated for credit with different topics. Past topics have included Berlin and Barcelona: Sister Cities, African Post-Colonial Literature, and Writers of the Caribbean. (2-4 semester hours)

HUM 305. Post-Colonial African Literature
This course will discuss how colonial heritage plays out in the works of major post-colonial African writers. African historical and cultural issues will be presented as a background for the study of literary works by representative post-independence major authors. We will approach these texts through close readings while focusing on the cultural context and theoretical questions of post-colonial discourse. Fictional texts will be studied both as a product of society and as a picture of a specific universe considered in a historical, political and sociological context. Offered alternate years. (3 semester hours)

HUM 360. Latin American Literature, Revolution, and History
A cross-cultural and multidisciplinary approach to the study of the forces affecting socio-political and aesthetic changes in 19th-century European and Latin American countries. The concepts of Independence, Revolution, and Class are studied in the works of Martí, Fuentes, Castellanos, García Márquez, Allende, and Valenzuela. Prerequisite: permission of instructor. Offered alternate years. (3 semester hours)

HUM 378. Women and Literature in Latin America
Using feminist perspectives, this course examines the multiple factors influencing the representation of women in Latin American literature. Authors include Bombal, Mistral Allende, Ferré, de Burgos, and Lispector. Topics include political realism and literary surrealism, language and feminist writing. Prerequisite: permission of instructor. Offered occasionally. (3 semester hours)

HUM 386. Hispanic-U.S. Experience in Literature and the Arts
Examines the rich, diverse response of Spanish-speaking peoples in the USA to issues of language, gender, identity, and acculturation, through works of literature, the media, and the arts. Includes textbooks, plays, and more. Offered occasionally. (3 semester hours)

Interdisciplinary Studies

ID 123. Oral History: Tell Me Your Story
Students will engage in the pursuit of knowledge by learning how to conduct an oral history interview. The experience with the primary sources will emphasize the importance of creating and sharing meaningful lives from any perspective. (3 semester hours)

ID 290/390. Interdisciplinary Internship
Individually-arranged internships in a community or workplace in which students apply and practice the ideals of the liberal arts beyond a single academic discipline. Required reflective assessment activities vary by experience and sponsor. Offered every semester, plus January and summer. (2-4 semester hours)

International Studies

INTL 151. Introduction to International Studies
Introduction to concepts and tools for the analysis of international and global issues. Course develops understanding of sociocultural, political, and economic differences and similarities. Topics include world areas and ecosystems, social-cultural differences, cultural identity, values, and international/intercultural relations. Offered annually. Offered fall semester. (3 semester hours)

INTL 160. Introduction to Africana Studies
The course will focus on the debates on black studies and the perception of Africa among black people in the diaspora. Offered alternate years. (3 semester hours)

INTL 350. Comparative Environmental Policy Analysis
Comparative analysis of contemporary governmental environmental policies, using quantitative and qualitative data. Within cost-benefit analysis typologies, the course deals with implication of such policies within the framework of conservative, protectionist, and progressive political arguments. Case studies from industrialized and less industrialized countries. Prerequisite: INTL 151, POLS 155, or ECON 209. Offered alternate years. Offered fall ’12. (3 semester hours)

INTL 385. Topics in International Studies
In-depth study of selected topics in international studies. Prerequisite: INTL 151 or POLS 155 or permission of instructor. May be repeated for credit with different topics. Past topics have included: Violence and Refugee Problems, China: the Global Political Economy and International Relations. Planned future topics include: Environment as a Social and Political Movement in pre-post Cold War. Offered as needed. (2-4 semester hours)

INTL 399. Independent Study in International Studies
Prerequisite: permission of instructor and approval. May be repeated for credit. Offered as needed. (1-3 semester hours)

INTL 402. Senior Seminar in International Studies
Research and analysis of an international issue with a focus on specific world areas and a multidisciplinary approach. The outcome will be a senior thesis. Prerequisite: senior standing. Offered annually spring semester. (4 semester hours)

See also: International Studies Major for a list of related courses counting toward the major.; Courses taught in French; Courses taught in German; Courses taught in Spanish

Italian

ITAL courses are taught in Italian.

ITAL 101, 102. Elementary Italian I and II
Intensive audio-lingual training, inductive grammar study, practice in reading and writing. Four meetings per week and language laboratory drills, films, and slides. Prerequisite for ITAL 101: no more than two years of Italian in high school; those with two years of high school Italian may take a placement exam to determine registration at a higher level. Prerequisite for ITAL 102: ITAL 101 or permission of instructor. Offered annually, 101 in fall, 102 in spring. (4 semester hours each)

ITAL 123, 124. Intermediate Italian I and II
Review and expansion of grammar. Designed to increase the student’s ability to understand, speak, read, and write Italian, and to acquaint her or him with significant aspects of Italian culture. The second semester emphasizes reading and writing. Use of videos, slides, tapes. Prerequisite for ITAL 123: ITAL 102 or Level III or IV of high school Italian, or permission of instructor. Prerequisite for ITAL 124: ITAL 123 or permission of instructor. Offered occasionally. (3 semester hours each)

ITAL 195/295. Tutorial in Italian
Aspects of Italian culture: a study of selected topics. Readings and discussion in Italian. Prerequisite: permission of instructor. Offered occasionally. (1 semester hour)

ITAL 399. Independent Study in Italian
Prerequisite: permission of instructor and approval. May be repeated for credit. Offered occasionally. (1-3 semester hours)

See also: Wells in Florence

Japanese

JPN courses are taught in Japanese.

JPN 101, 102. Elementary Japanese I and II
Development of all four basic communication skills: speaking, listening, reading, and writing. Intensive oral and written practice in class. Students will also be introduced to Japanese culture and society. Prerequisite for JPN 101: no more than two years of Japanese in high school; those with two years of high school Japanese may take a placement test to determine enrollment at a higher level. Prerequisite for JPN 102: JPN 101 or permission of instructor. Offered annually, 101 in fall and 102 in spring. (4 semester hours each)

JPN 123, 124. Intermediate Japanese I and II
Designed to improve students’ ability to understand, speak, read, and write Japanese, while also learning about social and cultural aspects of Japanese society. Second semester will emphasize more reading and writing. Prerequisite for JPN 123: JPN 102 or permission of instructor. Prerequisite for JPN 124: JPN 123 or permission of instructor. Offered annually, 123 in fall and 124 in spring. (3 semester hours each)

JPN 195. Tutorial in Japanese
Designed to increase students’ ability to express thoughts in sustained conversation and to approximate native speech and pronunciation. May be repeated for credit. Prerequisite: JPN 101-102 and permission of instructor. Offered every semester. (1 semester hour)

See also: Doshisha Women’s College of Liberal Arts; JF Oberlin University

Journalism

JOUR 101. Writing to be Read
By focusing on journalistic process skills, students learn to write with increased clarity and brevity whether they are preparing for a journalism career or simply wishing to improve their academic writing at the conceptual and sentence levels. Offered annually. (3 semester hours)

JOUR 290/390. Internship in Journalism
Individually arranged participation in the work of an institution devoted to Journalism.  May be repeated for credit. Graded: S/U. Offered every semester. (2-4 sem. hrs)

JOUR 301. Projects in Journalism
Designed for the student thinking of a career as a professional freelance writer, this course offers practical advicee and intense practice in the field, culminating in the student’s production of a publication-ready article. Prerequisite: Eng 270. Alternate Spring semester. (3 semester hours)

Mathematical and Physical Sciences

MPS 402. Senior Seminar in Mathematical and Physical Sciences I
The student will select a project that integrates and expands on material from earlier courses. The project proposal (to be implemented in MPS 403) will be completed by the end of the semester. Meets two hours a week. Prerequisite: senior MPS major in good standing or permission of instructor. Offered annually fall semester. (2 semester hours)

MPS 403. Senior Seminar in Mathematical and Physical Sciences II
Continuation of MPS 402. Student implements proposal and presents project to group. Meets two hours a week. Prerequisite: MPS 402. Offered annually spring semester. (2 semester hours)

See also: Computer Science Courses; Mathematics Courses; Physics Courses

Mathematics

Several mathematics courses are recommended particularly to students concentrating in the social sciences or the natural sciences. The calculus sequence is a valuable adjunct to all such fields. The statistical courses, MATH 251 Mathematical Statistics, MATH 300 Probability Theory, and the computer-oriented courses, as well as MATH 212 Linear Algebra and MATH 213 Ordinary Differential Equations, also are of considerable use to the students in these fields. For students unable to devote as much time to mathematics, courses MATH 105 Contemporary Mathematics, MATH 109 Precalculus, and MATH 151 Elementary Statistics furnish more limited mathematical ideas and tools that also are of great use in the social sciences and the other natural sciences.

MATH 105. Contemporary Mathematics
An introduction to some essential ideas, methods and applications of mathematics. Topics include logic and deduction, problem solving, and numbers and numeracy. Tilings and symmetry, voting systems, and game theory will be covered as time permits. Prerequisite: permission of instructor. Offered at least annually. (3 semester hours)

MATH 109. Precalculus
An introduction to the algebra of sets and functions emphasizing polynomials, exponential, logarithmic and trigonometric functions. Applications to business, economics and biology. Can serve as preparation for calculus. Prerequisite: three years of high school mathematics, including two of algebra, and permission of instructor. Offered annually fall semester. (3 semester hours)

MATH 111. Calculus I: Introduction to Calculus
Properties and graphs of algebraic and transcendental functions. Conceptual and analytical introduction to limits, continuity and derivatives, with applications. Prerequisite: MATH 109 or four years of secondary school mathematics, or permission of instructor. Offered every semester. (4 semester hours)

MATH 112. Calculus II: Introduction to Calculus
Continuation of MATH 111. The fundamental theorem of calculus, methods of integration, and applications. Introduction to differential equations, partial derivatives, vectors, and vector functions. Prerequisite: MATH 111. Offered every semester. (4 semester hours)

MATH 151. Elementary Statistics
Fundamental techniques of applied statistics, descriptive statistics and data analysis, probability, population parameters, hypothesis testing, regression and correlation. Prerequisite: three years of high school mathematics. Not recommended for students in the first semester of college. Students who have received credit for MATH 251 may not enroll in MATH 151. Offered every semester. (3 semester hours)

MATH 195. Tutorial in Trigonometry
Self-paced study of trigonometry topics, either as review or as an introduction. May be used as preparation for calculus or may be taken concurrently. Graded: S/U. Offered every semester. (1 semester hour)

MATH 211. Calculus III: Multivariable Calculus
Continuation of MATH 112. Infinite sequences and series. Vector functions, functions of several variables and applications. Multiple integrals and vector analysis. Prerequisite: MATH 112. Offered annually fall semester. (3 semester hours)

MATH 212. Linear Algebra
Matrices, vector spaces, linear transformations, determinants, and eigenvalues, with applications. Prerequisite: MATH 112. Offered annually spring semester. (3 semester hours)

MATH 213. Ordinary Differential Equations and Applications
Basic theory of differential equations with applications to continuous models. Focus on analytic methods with introduction to numerical methods. Introduction to computer tools in determining symbolic and numerical solutions. Prerequisite: MATH 112. Offered annually spring semester. (3 semester hours)

MATH 251. Mathematical Statistics
Descriptive and exploratory data analysis, one variable and two. Designing experiments and sampling. Examples of probability distributions, random variables, means and standard deviations. Central Limit Theorem. Correlation and regression. Confidence intervals and hypothesis testing. Other topics as time allows. Prerequisite: MATH 111 or permission of instructor. Offered alternate years. (3 semester hours)

MATH 267. Discrete Mathematics
An introduction to the foundations of mathematics and computer science through the study of discrete structures. Topics include logic, methods of proof, set theory, functions, relations, number systems, and algorithms. Prerequisite: one mathematics course or CS 131 or permission of instructor. Offered annually fall semester. (3 semester hours)

MATH 290. Internship in Mathematics
Individually arranged participation in the work of a computer laboratory, statistical office, or industrial research office. The student must submit a report or paper on an appropriate topic approved by the instructor. Prerequisite: background in mathematics appropriate to the project, and permission of instructor. Graded: S/U. Offered as needed. (2-4 semester hours)

MATH 300. Probability Theory
Densities and cumulative distributions of discrete and continuous random variables. Mathematical expectation, independence. Sums of random variables, analysis of Central Limit Theorem. Multivariate distributions. Application of mathematical probability tools in statistical estimation and testing concepts such as power, error types, regression, maximum likelihood principle. Prerequisite: MATH 112 or permission of instructor. Offered alternate years. (3 semester hours)

MATH 301. Applied and Computational Mathematics
This course will emphasize the mathematical formulation of “real world” problems along with common computational techniques used for their solution. Numerical methods and computer use will be emphasized. Prerequisite: MATH 112, PHYS 111L, and a 200-level MPS course, or permission of instructor. Offered alternate years. (3 semester hours)

MATH 305. Operations Research
Theory and application of representative methods in operations research including linear programming, network analysis, dynamic programming, game theory, and queuing theory. Prerequisite: MATH 212 or permission of instructor. Offered alternate years. (3 semester hours)

MATH 312. Real Analysis
Topological aspects of the real line, sequences and series of numbers, convergence, power series, properties of continuous functions, derivatives and their properties, Riemann integration, and the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. Prerequisite: MATH 267. Offered alternate years. (3 semester hours)

MATH 313. Abstract Algebra
Properties and examples of groups, rings and fields. Emphasis on common categorical notions such as homomorphisms, quotients and isomorphism theorems. Prerequisite: MATH 267. Offered alternate years. (3 semester hours)

MATH 385. Topics in Mathematics
In-depth study of a selected topic in mathematics. Past topics have included: History of Mathematics. Possible future topics include: Topology; Complex Analysis; Number Theory. May be repeated for credit with different topics. Offered as needed. (2-4 semester hours)

MATH 390. Internship in Mathematics
Individually arranged participation in the work of a computer laboratory, statistical office, or industrial research office designed primarily for more advanced students. May be repeated for credit. Prerequisite: MATH 290 or permission of instructor. Graded: S/U. Fee will be variable, living expenses at site. Offered as needed. (2-4 semester hours)

MATH 395. Tutorial in Mathematics
In-depth study of an area of special interest. Topic determined jointly by a faculty member and student(s) in consultation. Meets weekly for one hour. May be repeated for credit. Offered as needed. (1 semester hour)

MATH 399. Independent Study in Mathematics
Prerequisite: permission of instructor and approval. May be repeated for credit. Offered every semester. (1-3 semester hours)

See also: HIST 212. Introduction to the History of Science; Computer Science Courses

Museum Studies

MSEU 100. Introduction to Museum Studies
An introduction to the theories and practices of museum governance and exhibition design. Students will learn approaches pertaining to museum work appropriate to a variety of audiences, including science, anthropology, history, and art. Offered every Fall semester. (3 semester hours)

MSEU 290/390. Internship in Museum Studies
Individually arranged participation in the work of an institution devoted to Museum Studies. May be repeated for credit. Graded: S/U. Offered every semester. (2-4 sem. hrs)

Music

MUS 108. Musical Theatre in American Society
The evolution of musical theatre from the 19th century to the present day, and how society affected or was affected by this evolution. A survey of the best musicals in chronological order, including units on World War II, ethnic, and “Great Books” musicals. (3 semester hours)

MUS 112. Listening: A Survey of Western Music
A survey of Western classical musical styles in historical perspective including compositions by Bach, Mozart, Beethoven, and Stravinsky. (3 semester hours)

MUS 121. Beginning Class Guitar
Group instruction on acoustic guitar for beginning students. Graded: S/U. May be repeated. Offered each semester. (1 semester hour)

MUS 141. Beginning Class Piano
Class lessons at the beginning level using the electronic keyboard lab. Students will learn basic symbols, terms, and rhythms, and to play simple solo and ensemble pieces. Graded: S/U. May be repeated. Offered annually fall semester. (1 semester hour)

MUS 145. Introduction to Music Theory
Introduction to Music Theory is designed to teach students with little or no formal music training the elements of music theory. These elements include reading and writing music notation, learning to use the piano keyboard, identifying intervals, learning the structure of major and minor scales, identifying and building chords, analyzing chordal harmonies, understanding melodic structure, and harmonizing melodies. This course furthers students’ understanding of musical principles and practices that have been used in Western music from the seventeenth century through the 20th century. (3 semester hours)

MUS 150. Concert Choir
A performance-based course, Concert Choir is open by audition. Members prepare for a culminating performance of appropriate choral music for a live audience at the end of each semester. Students may sing without registering for credit if desired. Prerequisite: audition. Graded: S/U. May be repeated for credit. Offered every semester. (2 semester hours)

MUS 210. World Music
An introduction to the great diversity of traditional musics worldwide including units selected from Africa, Asia (China, Japan, Indonesia), the Indian subcontinent, Latin America, and Native American music; some consideration of theatre and dance as well. Includes recorded music, videos, and guest presentations. (3 semester hours)

MUS 220. Wells College Jazz Band
Students learn to perform the standard jazz repertoire on their instrument of expertise. They also learn improvisation technique. Prerequisite: audition or permission of instructor. Graded: S/U. May be repeated for credit. Offered every semester. (.5 semester hours)

MUS 242. Music Theory I
A study of the language of music and its construction. Includes part writing in 4 part vocal style and analysis of Western music and harmony with some composition. Electronic keyboard lab is used for practice and assignments. Prerequisite: MUS 145 or permission of instructor. (3 semester hours)

MUS 253. Chamber Orchestra
Instrumental musicians rehearse and perform orchestral works from the Renaissance period to the present. Two weekly rehearsals and at least one performance on campus each semester. Prerequisite: permission of instructor and musical and technical proficiency to match other members of the orchestra. May be repeated for credit. Graded: S/U. Offered every semester. (1 semester hour)

Off-Campus Study

OCS 110. January at the Art Students League — New York City
Thorough instruction in drawing, painting, sculpture, graphics, and illustration. The Art Students League is the oldest, and one of the most respected, art schools in the United States. Classes Monday-Friday. Afternoon visits to galleries, museums, and artists’ studios. Graded: S/U. May be repeated for credit. Offered January. (3 semester hours)

OCS 215. London Theatre
Offerings in London theatre. Attendance at approximately 10-15 performances will sample the range of venues, types of drama, and styles of production from the Royal Shakespeare and National Theatre and fringe and pub companies; reading of selected plays, discussion, and written reviews of performances. Prerequisite: permission of instructor. Offered alternate years. (3 semester hours)

OCS 271. Cross-Cultural Preparation
Topics include culture, cultural differences, culture shock, cross-cultural conflict, safety while abroad, and re- entry shock. Offered B-session of the semester before going abroad. Required for study abroad. Graded: S/U. Offered every semester. (.5 semester hour)

OCS 272: Cross-Cultural Reflection
Required during and after studying abroad, this course addresses and reflects on and discusses concepts introduced in OCS 271. Classroom application of new perspectives learned abroad will be one of the topics discussed. Graded: S/U. Offered every semester. (.5 semester hour)

OCS 275: Women and Public Policy Seminar
Week-long seminar with women leaders in public service. Formal and informal sessions include policy issues and political institutions, including the Supreme Court, think tanks, Congress, the Executive Branch, and nongovernmental organizations — all from women’s perspectives. Graded: S/U. May be repeated once. Offered every January. (1 semester hour)

OCS 280. Women and Science/Technology Policy Seminar
Week-long seminar with women leaders working in the fields of science and technology, held in Washington, DC. Speakers are drawn from a variety of agencies and organizations. Graded S/U. May be repeated once. Offered every January. (1 semester hour)

OCS 285: Topics in Experiential Learning
Week-long experiential learning in a variety of settings, including community service, with opportunities to apply and test studies in the liberal arts. Past offerings have included: American Genealogical Resources; Navajo Nation Experience; Environmental Restoration and Protection in the FL Everglades; and Southern Adventures of Fanny Kemble. Graded: S/U. Offered as needed. (1-3 semester hours)

OCS 300: The Anthropological Experience in Hawaii
This course will involve 2 to 3 weeks of experiential learning and fieldwork in the Islands of Hawaii. Students will explore issues such as Native Hawaiian culture and history, cultural resource management, environmental preservation, agricultural development of sugar cane and coffee, archaeology, multiculturalism, and the impact of tourism. Prerequisite: ANTH 250 and permission of instructor. Offered alternate years. (3 semester hours)

OCS 305: The Anthropological Experience in Belize
This is a two week intensive course in the multicultural nation of Belize doing fieldwork among Garifuna, Maya, Creole and American ex-patriots. Issues covered include land rights, education, cultural survival, tourism, archaeology and preservation of natural resources. Experiential learning opportunities are available. Prerequisite: permission of instructor. Offered occasionally. (3 semester hours)

See also: Affiliated programs for semester-long off-campus study

Philosophy

PHIL 100. Philosophy
Philosophy is an ongoing and open-ended conversation about basic questions of human existence. This course introduces students to the conversation through the works of major philosophers. Offered annually. (3 semester hours)

PHIL 114. Logic and Critical Thinking
Introduction to the art of sound reasoning. Emphasis is placed on informal logic and practical applications, although some formal proofs are also considered. Offered at least annually. (3 semester hours)

PHIL 230. Ancient and Medieval Philosophy
Survey of works by significant classical and medieval writers such as Plato, Aristotle, Augustine and Aquinas. Offered alternate years. (3 semester hours)

PHIL 235. Modern and Post-Modern Philosophy
A study of philosophy from the 17th to the 20th century. Focus on major philosophers such as Descartes, Pascal, Kant, Hegel, Mill, Derrida and Foucault. Offered alternate years. (3 semester hours)

PHIL 240. Ethics
Introduces concepts and methods of philosophical ethics. Discussion of basic analytic tools, and theoretical answers to fundamental ethical questions; also considers contemporary moral problems such as animal rights, abortion, and euthanasia. Offered at least annually. (3 semester hours)

PHIL 245. Meaning
This course focuses on philosophical perspectives on the human quest for meaning. We will discuss existentialist themes in philosophy, film, literature, and psychoanalytic theory. Prerequisite: PHIL 100 or permission of instructor. Offered annually. (3 semester hours)

PHIL 285/385. Topics in Philosophy
In-depth study of a selected topic in philosophy. For example, a topic in ethics such as the family, abortion or war, or a topic on human nature or religion, such as philosophy of mind, Buddhist philosophy, or existentialism. Prerequisite: PHIL 240 (for ethics topics) or permission of instructor. May be repeated for credit with different topics. Offered occasionally. (2-4 semester hours)

PHIL 300. Philosophy of Religion
A critical examination of various approaches to the philosophical study of religion and analysis of specific topics such as evil, death, revelation, knowledge of God. Prerequisite: PHIL 114 or PHIL 240. Offered alternate years. (3 semester hours)

PHIL 310. Ethics, Law, and Social Policy
Examination of issues at the interface of ethics, law, and policy. Topics such as free speech, separation of church and state, equality, and sex and reproductive rights. Prerequisite: PHIL 240. Offered as needed. (3 semester hours)

PHIL 325. Belief and Knowledge
This course explores philosophical perspectives on belief and knowledge. Sociological, psychoanalytic and historical perspectives also will be considered. Some topics to be examined include the ethics of belief, the meaning and significance of scepticism, theories of knowledge, the social construction of reality, and faith versus reason. Prerequisite: one PHIL course or permission of instructor. Offered alternate years. (3 semester hours)

PHIL 329. Aesthetics
Special attention to the philosophy of creativity, aesthetic value judgments, and the relation between imagination and knowledge. Prerequisite: one course in philosophy or one course in arts or literature. Offered occasionally. (3 semester hours)

PHIL 331. Mind
What is it to have a mind? What is the mind’s relation to the brain? Do we ever have free will? In this course, we consider multiple perspectives on these questions and others in the philosophy of mind. Prerequisite: PHIL 100 or permission of instructor. Offered annually. (3 semester hours)

PHIL 342. Sexual and Reproductive Ethics
Investigation of moral and political issues raised by the separation of sex and reproduction, and new reproductive technologies. Consideration of such topics as contraception, abortion, autonomy in birthing, egg donation, surrogacy, stem cell research, designer babies, and gay parenting. Prerequisite: PHIL 240 or permission of instructor; recommended: one biology course. Offered alternate years. (3 semester hours)

PHIL 385. Topics in Philosophy
Past topics have included: What is Philosophy? Offered as needed. (3 semester hours)

PHIL 395. Tutorial in Philosophy
Opportunities are offered for advanced tutorial study in subjects of special interest to individual students or small groups of students. The number of such courses offered in any single semester must be restricted. Examples of the range and variety of such offerings are individual philosophers, schools of philosophy, and philosophical issues. Prerequisite: permission of instructor. May be repeated for credit. Offered as needed. (1 semester hour)

PHIL 399. Independent Study in Philosophy
Prerequisite: permission of instructor and approval. May be repeated for credit. Offered as needed. (1-3 semester hours)

PHIL 402. Research and Thesis in Philosophy
Preparation of a thesis based on individual research. Prerequisite: senior PHIL major. Offered annually spring semester. (3 semester hours)

Physical Education

PE 105. Meditation for Stress Reduction and Relaxation
This introductory level class will explore various forms of meditation for stress reduction and relaxation including seated meditation, walking meditation, and mindfulness-based meditation. Simple yoga postures and breathing techniques will be included as appropriate to class needs. Graded: S/U. May be repeated for credit. Offered every semester. (.5 semester hour)

PE 110. Beginning Swimming
Course designed primarily for those students who do not pass the Wells swimming test. Emphasis on basic stroke technique. Graded: S/U. Offered every semester. (.5 semester hour)

PE 115. Aerobic Kickboxing 
This course will explore aerobic kickboxing and fitness training using “Seven-Minute Internal-Fire Functional Fitness©” routines. In each session new aerobic and kickboxing sequences will be presented and practiced working up a great sweat and stoking your metabolic furnace with a routine that is not only a great workout but customizable to your personal goals. Graded: S/U. May be repeated for credit. Additional fee. Offered every semester. (.5 semester hour)

PE 118. Beginning Sailing
Emphasis will be on understanding how to use the wind to sail a boat in a set direction. In addition, how to rig a Sunfish sailboat, take care of equipment in and out of the water, and water safety will be taught. The many different ways a sailboat can be used for personal enjoyment will also be presented. Graded: S/U. May be repeated for credit. Offered annually fall semester. (.5 semester hour)

PE 119. Canoeing and Kayaking
Emphasis will be on learning basic strokes used to control and power these boats. Also, care of equipment, both in and out of the water and water safety will be taught. How these boats are used for personal enjoyment in many different ways will also be presented. Graded: S/U. May be repeated for credit. Offered annually fall semester. (.5 semester hour)

PE 121. Water Aerobics
Low-impact exercises designed to tone your body, increase strength and flexibility, and improve your cardiovascular endurance. Graded: S/U. May be repeated for credit. Offered annually. (.5 semester hour)

PE 123. Yoga
Yoga is a dynamic system of balance that leads to a healthy mind and body. The course contains various techniques of concentration, proper breathing, posture, cleansing and relaxation. Topics covered encourage knowledge of simple hygiene and nutrition. Graded: S/U. May be repeated for credit. Offered every semester. (.5 semester hour)

PE 124. Toning
Exercises designed to increase strength and flexibility of the various body parts. Challenging. Low impact. Graded: S/U. May be repeated for credit. Offered every semester. (.5 semester hour)

PE 125. Exercise and Weight Training
Introduction to weight training and exercise principles. Instruction in proper technique and maintenance of a weight training program utilizing the Universal unit. Graded: S/U. May be repeated for credit. Offered every semester. (.5 semester hour)

PE 129. Beginning Horseback Riding
This course explores the sport of horseback riding mounted and un-mounted. Beginner students will learn to control a horse at a walk and trot. Experienced students can explore pattern work and transition in either hunt seat or saddle seat disciplines. Additional fee. Graded: S/U. May be repeated for credit. Offered every semester. (.5 semester hour)

PE 130. Beginning Tennis
Emphasis placed on skill acquisition of the basic strokes: forehand, backhand, serve, and volley. Introduce rules and scoring. Graded: S/U. May be repeated for credit. Offered every semester. (.5 semester hour)

PE 135. Golf
Instruction in basic techniques from beginning through more advanced levels of play. Opportunity for videotaping and course play. Graded: S/U. May be repeated for credit. Offered every semester. (.5 semester hour)

PE 175. Scuba Diving
This course prepares the student for safe and enjoyable participation in recreational scuba diving. Successful completion of classroom, pool and open water dives results in lifetime international certification. All scuba equipment furnished. Additional fees.. Graded: S/U. Offered every semester. (1 semester hour)

PE 180. Self-Defense
This course presents basic techniques against a weaponless attacker. Self-defense techniques and escapes against grabs, chokes, punches, and kicks are emphasized along with physical skills to avoid injury, strategies applying the psychology of victim/attacker, and tactics to create effective defense. Graded: S/U. May be repeated for credit. Offered every semester. (.5 semester hour)

PE 185. Beginning Shorin-ryu Karate
This course will introduce students to the basic movement skills and concepts of Shorin-ryu karate. Students will learn elementary hand and foot techniques that will be applied in prearranged movement exercises and beginning-level sparring. Graded: S/U. May be repeated for credit. Offered every semester. (.5 semester hour)

PE 190. Nutrition and Women’s Health
Through lecture/discussion, independent research, and personal introspection, students will identify personal nutrition and wellness issues and learn to discriminate between external sources of nutritional information and their own internal nutritional wisdom. Topics include diets and weight loss, body image, and the role of diet in chronic diseases relevant to women’s health, including osteoporosis, breast cancer, and eating disorders. Graded: S/U. Offered occasionally. Does not meet PE activity requirement. (1 semester hour)

PE 199. Independent Study in Physical Education
With approval and under special extenuating circumstances, a student may elect an independent course of study for seven weeks in the area of her or his choice. Minimum requirements include seven weeks of activity, five times weekly, for a minimum duration of 30 minutes. A journal is to be submitted upon course completion. Graded: S/U. May be repeated for credit. Offered every semester. (.5 semester hour)

PE 223. Intensive Yoga
Yoga is a dynamic system of balance that has received scientific documentation for leading to a healthy mind and body, and also having enabled students to combine natural law with practical sense of well-being. The course contains various techniques of concentration, proper breathing, posture, cleansing and relaxation. Topics covered encourage knowledge of simple hygienic and nutritional hints. Graded: S/U. May be repeated for credit. Offered every semester. (.5 semester hour)

PE 290/390. Internship in Physical Education
Individually arranged participation in activities related to physical education and athletics, at institutions such as YM-YWCAs, high schools, health clubs, or similar sports facilities. Prerequisite: permission of instructor. Graded: S/U. May be repeated for credit. Offered as needed. (2-4 semester hour)

PE 315. Lifeguard Training
American Red Cross certification. Instruction in advanced rescues and escape techniques. Prerequisite: swimming endurance required. Standard First Aid and CPR/BLS required for certification. Additional fee. Graded: S/U. Offered every semester. (2 semester hours)

PE 410. Intercollegiate Swimming
Prerequisite: tryout. Graded: S/U. Students register for the course during the spring semester and receive a grade at the end of spring semester, but practices begin in the fall. Offered annually spring semester. (1 semester hour)

PE 416. Water Safety Instructor
This course is dedicated to developing the skills necessary to instruct and plan courses in the American Red Cross Swimming and Water Safety program. Students are expected to be proficient in the following strokes: front crawl, back crawl, elementary backstroke, breaststroke, and sidestroke. Additional Fee. Prerequisite: permission of instructor. Graded: S/U. Offered annually spring semester. (2 semester hours)

PE 420. Intercollegiate Volleyball
Prerequisite
: tryout. Graded: S/U.  Offered each semester. (1 semester hour)

PE 430. Intercollegiate Tennis
Prerequisite
: tryout. Graded: S/U. Offered annually fall semester. (1 semester hour)

PE 435. Intercollegiate Cross-Country
Prerequisite: tryout. Graded: S/U. Offered annually fall semester. (1 semester hour)

PE 440. Intercollegiate Field Hockey
Prerequisite: tryout. Graded: S/U. Offered annually fall semester. (1 semester hour)

PE 442. Intercollegiate Soccer
Prerequisite: tryout. Graded: S/U. Offered annually fall semester. (1 semester hour)

PE 445. Intercollegiate Lacrosse
Prerequisite: tryout. Graded: S/U. Offered annually spring semester. (1 semester hour)

PE 446. Intercollegiate Basketball
Prerequisite: tryout. Graded: S/U. Offered annually spring semester. (1 semester hour)

See also: DANC 205. Modern Dance Technique I; DANC 206. Ballet Technique I

Physics

Of the physics offerings, one course, PHYS 106 Introductory Astronomy, is of general interest and is intended for students majoring outside the sciences. This courses meets the College laboratory science requirement.

Fundamentals of Physics I-II (111L, 212L) form a two-semester sequence and are designed to emphasize the fundamental principles of classical physics and to develop in the student a quantitative understanding of these principles. A third course, PHYS 302 Modern Physics, is an introduction to the revolutionary ideas of 20th century physics.

PHYS 221L Principles of Electronics provides an introduction to the fast-changing science of information and signal processing. They are appropriate for students in the sciences.

The course MATH 301 Applied and Computational Mathematics is designed for a student with a major in mathematical and physical sciences. It concentrates on a variety of mathematical and computer-related tools with applications in physical science.

The remaining courses are designed for the mathematics and physics majors and offer more concentrated study of particular areas of physics and pre-engineering.

PHYS 104. Why Music Matters: The Science of Sound
Music appeals to all people, and has done so for thousands of years. We will apply scientific principles to the art of music to show why music evokes an emotional response. It will include occasional hands-on activity. (3 semester hours)

PHYS 106. Introductory Astronomy
This course covers the basic ideas and techniques of astronomy, The night sky; star physics and evolution; contents and structures of galaxies; black holes and cosmology. Nighttime telescope work, weather permitting. Meets natural laboratory science distribution requirement. Offered alternate years fall semester. (3 semester hours)

PHYS 111L. Fundamentals of Physics I
A calculus-based introductory course for all science, mathematics, and pre-engineering students. Particle kinematics; vectors; Newton’s law; forces and their effects; energy conservation; systems of particles; momentum conservation; rotational kinematics. Prerequisite: four years of high school mathematics and MATH 111 or equivalent. Offered annually spring semester. (4 semester hours)

PHYS 212L. Fundamentals of Physics II
A continuation of PHYS 111L. Traveling and standing waves; Electrostatics in vacuum and in materials (Coloumb’s and Gauss’s laws); Magnetostatics (Biot-Savart’s and Ampere’s laws); Faraday’s law of induction; lenses and mirrors; interference and diffraction of light. Prerequisite: PHYS 111L, MATH 112. Concurrent registration in MATH 211 is encouraged. Offered annually fall semester. (4 semester hours)

PHYS 221L. Principles of Electronics
Introduction to analog and digital electronics. DC and AC circuit theory, impedance, filters, transistor operation and amplification, operational amplifiers, simple logic gates, counters, D/A converters. Prerequisite: PHYS 111L or permission of instructor. Offered alternate years. (4 semester hours)

PHYS 290. Internship in Physics
Individually arranged participation in research with industry or a university. This course will not satisfy any requirement in the mathematics/physics major or minor. Prerequisite: permission of instructor. Graded: S/U. Offered every semester. (2-4 semester hours)

PHYS 302. Modern Physics
This course completes the introductory sequence in physics. Topics: the photoeffect; black-body radiation; early results in atomic physics; Schrodinger equation in one and three dimensions; hydrogen atom; atomic spectroscopy; introduction to quantum statistical mechanics, and applications. Prerequisite: PHYS 111L, MATH 112. (3 semester hours)

PHYS 307. Special Relativity and Intermediate Quantum Mechanics
An in-depth study of the two pillars of 20th Century physics. Einstein's special relativity revolutionized humanity's understanding of space and time, and we will study its treatment of kinetics and energetics, with consideration of length contraction, time dilation and mass-energy equivalence. We then turn to, initially, Schrodinger's quantum mechanics as applied to bound and free states, culminating in the hydrogen atom. Fnally we consider an alternative formulation, using operator methods, which allow for understanding of spin and angular momentum, or single and multi-electron systems. Prerequisites: MATH 111; PHYS 302, or POI. (3 semester hours)

PHYS 340. Experimental Physics
Advanced laboratory work in the physical sciences (for example, the Franck-Hertz, Millikan oil drop, and Cavendish torsion balance experiments), to develop thorough understanding of theoretical and practical considerations of these and other historic experiments. Prerequisite: PHYS 212L or permission of instructor. Offered alternate years. (3 semester hours)

PHYS 351. Research in Physics and Computing
Collaboration with physics and related faculty in specialized work. Ongoing projects include: automated data acquisition and analysis, molecular order in liquid crystals, computing languages, and computer modeling and simulations. May be repeated for credit. Prerequisite: permission of instructor. Offered as needed. (2 semester hours)

PHYS 385. Topics in Physics
In-depth study of a selected topic in physics. A course in selected advanced topics in Physics such as Electricity and Magnetism, Quantum Mechanics, or Thermal and Statistical Physics. Prerequisite: junior and senior majors and permission of instructor. May be repeated for credit with different topics. Offered as needed. (3 semester hours)

PHYS 390. Advanced Internship in Physics
Individually arranged participation in research with industry or a university. This course will not satisfy any requirement in the mathematics/physics major or minor. Prerequisite: permission of instructor. Graded: S/U. Offered as needed. (2-4 semester hours)

PHYS 398. Supplementary Advanced Work in Physics
Prerequisite: permission of instructor. Offered as needed. (3 semester hours)

See also: CHEM 308LL. Laboratory in Physical Chemistry; HIST 212. Introduction to the History of Science; MATH 301. Applied and Computational Mathematics

Political Science

POLS 155. American Politics
An introduction to the institutional and behavioral foundations of American politics. Offered every semester. (3 semester hour)

POLS 210. The United Nations Simulation
Students who participate actively in the Model U.N. Club may receive credit for work done in conjunction with the club’s activities. May be repeated for credit. Offered in the spring semester as needed. (1 semester hour)

POLS 230. Democratic Theory
Explores the central themes of democratic thought in political theory, including classical democracy, social contract theory, and current issues. Both classical and contemporary readings address citizenship, equality, and political participation. Prerequisite: POLS 155 or permission of instructor. Offered alternate years. (3 semester hours)

POLS 235. The U.S. Congress
Introduces students to the development of public policy in the United States by focusing on Congress as an institution, congressional policy roles, and relations between the legislative and executive branches. Prerequisite: POLS 155. Offered annually spring semester. (3 semester hours)

POLS 255. American Parties and Elections
A detailed look at the nature of political parties in the United States including organization, electoral considerations and government functions. Independent research by students regarding the health of the party system. Prerequisite: POLS 155 or permission of instructor. Offered alternate fall semesters. (3 semester hours)

POLS 262. Politics in Developing Countries
An analysis of political institutions, dependency, militarism and democratization in developing countries. Prerequisite: POLS 155 or INTL 151. Offered alternate years. (3 semester hours)

POLS 267. International Organization
Examination of the goals, nature, and problems of international organizations with specific focus on the role of the United Nations and its related agencies and programs. Prerequisite: INTL 151 or POLS 155 or permission of instructor. Offered alternate years. (3 semester hours)

POLS 268. Comparative Governments and Politics: Cases of Predominantly Black Nations
The study of the structures of the major political and social institutions and the struggle for power in predominantly black nations. Prerequisite: POLS 155 or INTL 151. Offered alternate years. (3 semester hours)

POLS 285/385. Topics in Public Policy and Politics
In-depth study of a selected topic in political science. Study of participation, public policy and policy making in industrial societies. Topics may include: poverty, housing, education, job training, health care, unemployment, welfare, conservation, political participation, elections, and campaigns. Prerequisite: POLS 155 or sophomore standing. May be repeated for credit with different topics. Past topics have included: U.S. Social Welfare Policy; Race, Public Policy and Democracy in the U.S.; The Politics of Terrorism; and Politics and Whiteness in the U.S. Offered as needed. (3 semester hours)

POLS 290/390. Internship in Political Science
Students may submit proposals for internships in any governmental or political office or in a legal office. Prerequisite: one course in political science or permission of instructor. Graded: S/U. May be repeated for credit. Offered as needed. (2-4 semester hours)

POLS 299/399. Independent Study in Political Science
Prerequisite: permission of instructor and approval. May be repeated for credit. Offered as needed. (1-3 semester hours)

POLS 307. Contemporary Political Ideologies
Introduces political theory by examining the ideologies that have most influenced modern, political institutions, movements, and arguments. Possible ideologies include liberalism, socialism, fascism, nationalism, and feminism. Prerequisite: POLS 155 or INTL 151 or permission of instructor. Offered alternate years. (3 semester hour)

POLS 320. Liberalism and Its Critics
Liberalism as a central tradition of the West. From its mid-17th century origins, liberalism has encountered a series of problems: of the individual, exchange, the public, limits, power, welfare, and the self. Response by critics of liberalism. Prerequisite: POLS 155 or INTL 151 or permission of instructor. Offered alternate years. (3 semester hours)

POLS 332. Old and New Paradigms in World Politics
Critical discussion on the old and new paradigms within the world of politics. Major topics will include population control, environmentalism, search for peace, etc. Prerequisite: POLS 155 or INTL 151 or permission of instructor. Offered alternate years. (3 semester hours)

POLS 340. Politics of the Emerging Nations in Asia
This course will compare contemporary political institutions, the role of civil society, the national ideologies, and economic policies of the emerging and non-emerging countries in Asia. Prerequisite: INTL 151 or POLS 155. Offered alternate years. (3 semester hours)

POLS 345. Public Opinion
An investigation of the substance and structure of public opinion in the United States. Students will assess the current literature and conduct independent research. Prerequisite: POLS 155 or permission of instructor. Offered alternate fall semesters. (3 semester hour)

POLS 355. Approaches to International Relations
Survey of the main theories and approaches to international relations, such as systems analysis, idealism, realism, environmental and psychological theories, functionalism, imperialism, conflict and decision-making theories. Prerequisite: INTL 151 or POLS 155 or permission of instructor. Offered alternate fall semesters. (3 semester hours)

POLS 360. The U.S. Judiciary
Examines the role of the U.S. judiciary and public policy with an emphasis on judicial review, civil rights and liberties, and the Supreme Court. Prerequisite: POLS 155 or HIST 242. Offered alternate years. (3 semester hours)

POLS 365. Governments and Politics in Industrialized Countries
Analysis of the government and politics in major industrialized countries with particular emphasis on political culture, political institutions, policies, and electoral process and behavior. Prerequisite: POLS 155 or INTL 151 or permission of instructor. Offered alternate spring semesters. (3 semester hours)

POLS 395. Tutorial in Political Science
In-depth study of an area of special interest. Topic determined jointly by a faculty member and student(s) in consultation. Meets weekly for one hour. May be repeated for credit. Offered as needed. (1 semester hour)

POLS 399. Independent Study in Political Science
Prerequisite: permission of instructor and approval. May be repeated for credit. Offered every semester. (1-3 semester hours)

POLS 401. Senior Seminar and Thesis in Political Science
This seminar is about the examination of individual research issues and topics that seniors in political science are working on in their theses. Besides specific sessions on the methodological and theoretical issues, seniors will regularly meet to exchange ideas related to their common experience. Prerequisite: POLS senior. Offered annually fall semester. (4 semester hours)

See also: Albany Internship Experience through Marist College; OCS 275. Women and Public Policy Seminars

Psychology

PSY 101. General Psychology
An introduction to the scientific study of behavior, including an examination of various approaches to psychological thought. Among the topics addressed are learning, cognition, development, motivation, and psychopathology. Format varies; may be lecture or seminar. (3 semester hours)

PSY 206. Health Psychology
An introduction to the interdisciplinary field of health psychology. Students will learn theories and principles of health psychology and apply them to wellness, prevention, illness, and healthcare. (3 semester hours)

PSY 210. Child Development
An introduction to developmental psychology covering conception through adulthood. Physical, social and cognitive development are explored with emphasis on early and mid-childhood. Major theories are applied to common issues in development, e.g., parent-child relations, education, poverty and delinquency. Prerequisite: PSY 101. (3 semester hours)

PSY 214. The Psychology of Women
This course uses the theories and methods of psychology to focus on women’s development, personality, and role in society. (3 semester hours)

PSY 224. Social Psychology
This course will explore the interaction between the individual and the social world. Topics covered will include social cognition; the self; attitudes and persuasion; group process; prejudice, stereotyping, and discrimination; aggression; and prosocial behavior. Cross-cultural perspectives will be examined. Prerequisite: PSY 101. (3 semester hours)

PSY 227. Abnormal Psychology
A survey of research and descriptive aspects of behavior pathology and methods of treatment. Prerequisite: PSY 101. (3 semester hours)

PSY 235. Forensic Psychology
This course provides an introduction to forensic psychology, which is the intersection of psychology and the legal system. Examples of topics covered are expert witness issues, insanity pleas, false confessions, issues surrounding repressed memory, eyewitness testimony, and criminal profiling. Special attention will be given to the psychological implications of the legal system’s treatment of minority groups. Prerequisite: PSY 101. (3 semester hours)

PSY 242. Drugs and Behavior
A study of mind-altering drugs and their effects on the central nervous system, and behavior. Drug dependence and abuse. Principles of psychopharmacology. Prerequisite: PSY 101 or permission of instructor. (3 semester hours)

PSY 250. Human Sexuality
A survey of the biological, psychological, and cultural aspects of human sexuality including the development of sexual behavior, love and sexual relationships, AIDS, sexual victimization, the physiology and sexual behavior and sexual dysfunctions, controversial issues in human sexuality. (3 semester hours)

PSY 270. Foundations and Methods in Psychology
This course is an introduction to methodological thinking in psychology, using a hands-on approach that applies basic methodological concepts to professional and popular press reports related to psychological concepts. The course will provide students with a foundation for success in the study of psychology as well as critical thinking skills that can be applied to any social science and in everyday life. (3 semester hour)

PSY 275. Positive Psychology
Review of strength-based approaches to psychology. Research, theory, and cross-cultural perspectives on resiliency, gratitude, forgiveness, spirituality, humor, mindfulness, emotional intelligence, and creativity and their effects on well-being and “the good life” are just some of the topics to be investigated. (3 semester hours)

PSY 280. Psychology of Art
An examination of the creation and experience of art as a product of human behavior and mental process, and an exploration of the positive uses to which it can be applied (e.g., toward the pursuit of wellness or social justice). (3 semester hours)

PSY 285. Topics in Psychology
In-depth study of a selected topic in psychology. May be repeated for credit with different topics. Past topics have included: Constructing Sexual Identities: Cross-Cultural Perspectives; Environmental Psychology; Violence and Schools; and Organizational Psychology. (2-4 semester hours)

PSY 290. Internship Program in Psychology
Individually arranged field experiences in psychological settings, for example, psychiatric hospitals, both private and public, and education classes for students with disabilities. A journal and a paper evaluating the experience will be required as a form of assessment. Prerequisite: two courses in psychology and permission of instructor. Graded: S/U. (2-4 semester hours)

PSY 300. Sport Psychology
An overview of the theories and research related to sport behavior. Topics include motivation; effect of attention, emotion, and mood on performance; cognitive and behavioral interventions; social psychology of sport. Every spring semester. Prerequisite: PSY 101. (3 semester hours)

PSY 301. Clinical Child Psychology
An examination of prevalent psychological disorders among children (including behavioral, emotional, health-related, development and learning disorders). Objectives include: improved understanding of etiology, learning the basics of assessment and diagnosis, and applying theories to the treatment of childhood mental disorders. Prerequisite: PSY 210 or PSY 227 or Permission of Instructor. Offered alternate Fall semester. (3 semester hours)

PSY 306. Organizational Behavior
Students will explore issues such as employee motivation, group goal achievement, development of leadership skills, and working successfully with diverse populations. We will discuss power and politics, stress and coping, and other topics related to navigating the workplace. Prerequisite: PSY 101 or permission of instructor and at least sophomore standing. PSY 224 Social Psychology is a recommended (but not required) prerequisite. (3 semester hours)

PSY 318. Adolescent Development
Psychological approaches exploring the diversity of adolescent development. The course will focus on the intersections of culture, race, class, gender, and sexuality during adolescence. Topics include: growing up rural/urban, immigration and schooling, resiliency, love and intimacy, identity in global times. Prerequisite: PSY 101. (3 semester hours)

PSY 330. Indigenous Psychologies
Emphasizes a cultural sciences approach to psychology, including counseling/therapy, assessment, and research. Challenges assumptions of Western psychology and emphasizes the necessity of understanding each culture within its own social and ecological context and frame of reference. Prerequisite: PSY 101 and two other courses in psychology or permission of the instructor. (3 semester hours)

PSY 335. Psychology of Environmental Sustainability
This course examines theoretical perspectives and empirical research on promoting environmentally sustainable behavior. Through team-based, service learning projects, students apply knowledge gained in the course to address sustainability issues on the Wells campus and in the surrounding community. Prerequisite: sophomore standing or above. (3 semester hours)

PSY 338. Psychotherapy 
An examination of the major systems of psychotherapy (psychoanalysis, cognitive, person-centered, behavioral, etc). Objectives include: developing a model of therapy, learning basic elements of counseling, working with diverse populations developing and applying knowledge of the ethics code. Prerequisite: PSY 227, PSY 301, or permission of instructor. (3 semester hours)

PSY 340. Psycholinguistics
The psychological study of language: how it is learned, produced, comprehended, and used. Philosophical, biological, cultural, methodological, and theoretical issues will be covered. Special topics such as animal language, sociolinguistics, second language acquisition, and language disorder will also be discussed. Prerequisite: PSY 101 (experience with a second language and PSY 347 desirable but not required). (3 semester hours)

PSY 342. Biological Bases of Behavior
A study of the three biological bases of behavior—nervous system, endocrine system, and genetics—and how each plays a role in the expression of behavior, from thirst and hunger to sexual behavior to addictions to psychological disorder and more. Prerequisite: PSY 101. (3 semester hours)

PSY 343. Neuropsychology
A study of clinical and experimental research concerning human brain function with particular emphasis on psychological deficit. Methods of assessment of neuropsychological impairment. Prerequisite: two courses in psychology or permission of instructor. (3 semester hours)

PSY 347. Cognitive Psychology
Cognitive psychology is concerned with the scientific study of the mind and how we process, store, and retrieve information. Mental functions studied in the course include perception, attention, memory, reasoning, decision making, problem solving, and language processing. Prerequisite: PSY 101. (3 semester hours)

PSY 349. Cognition and Culture
An interdisciplinary exploration of the interplay between cultural and cognitive processes, the resulting diversity of mind, and its role in actions such as intergroup conflict resolution. Conducted as an upper-level discussion seminar complemented by the cultural perspectives of guest speakers. Prerequisite: PSY 101 or ANTH 161 (PSY 347 recommended). (3 semester hours)

PSY 355. Adult Development and Aging
Using a lifespan approach, this course examines recent research on the physiological, psychological, and social dimensions of adult development. The goals of this course are to acquaint students with the basic processes of adult development and to promote positive attitudes and expectations about aging. Prerequisite: PSY 101. (3 semester hours)

PSY 360L. Qualitative Research Methods
Methodologies in psychology which use qualitative description and analysis. Methods emphasized: interviews, case study, and participant observation. Extensive use of video and computer technologies for data collection and analysis. Three class hours and two of field-based study. Prerequisite: two courses in psychology and MATH 151, or permission of instructor. (4 semester hours)

PSY 365L. Quantitative Methods in Psychology
Basic quantitative research methods commonly used in psychology are examined in detail, with particular emphasis on choosing appropriate methods for research questions/hypothesis in different areas of psychology (e.g., developmental, social, cognitive). For the laboratory session, students spend two hours each week collecting and/or analyzing data. Prerequisite: two courses in psychology and MATH 151, or permission of instructor. (4 semester hours)

PSY 370. Sensation and Perception
An exploration and appreciation of the sensory and perceptual processes that produce an interpretation of the world for us. Experiential activities will include perceptual illusions and experiments, art museum field trip, and mammalian eye dissection. Prerequisite: PSY 101 or permission of instructor. (3 semester hours)

PSY 385. Topics in Psychology
In-depth study of a selected topic in psychology. May be repeated for credit with different topics. Past topics have included: Constructing Sexual Identities: Cross-Cultural Perspectives; Environmental Psychology, Sensation and Perception; and Stereotyping and Stigmatization. (2-4 semester hours)

PSY 390. Advanced Internship Program in Psychology
Individually arranged field experiences for students who have taken PSY 290. A journal and a research paper on a topic related to the internship will be required of students enrolled in this program as a form of assessment. Prerequisite: PSY 290 and permission of instructor. Graded: S/U. (2-4 semester hours)

PSY 395. Tutorial in Psychology
In-depth study of an area of special interest. Topic determined jointly by a faculty member and student(s) in consultation. Meets weekly for one hour. May be repeated for credit. (1 semester hour)

PSY 396. Tutorial: Diversity and Psychology
We will critically explore such topics as how western research shapes our understanding of human behavior, possibilities for constructing different psychologies, how paradigms frame our understanding of human life, how class and gender shape identities in the classroom, implicit assumptions in developmental theory and their consequences in the practice of psychology. Participants will be encouraged to continue critical examination of their attitudes, beliefs, and assumptions regarding race, class, gender, sexual orientation, ability, culture, etc. through dialogues with other participants. (1 semester hour)

PSY 398. Supplementary Advanced Work in Psychology
Prerequisite: adequate preparation for advanced work in the field, and permission and approval of instructor. May be repeated for credit. (3 semester hours)

PSY 399. Independent Study in Psychology
Prerequisite: permission of instructor and approval. May be repeated for credit. (1-3 semester hours)

PSY 403. Senior Seminar: Contemporary Issues in Psychology
An examination of selected theoretical and professional issues in psychology. Students will prepare a thesis based on review of the literature on a topic approved by the instructor and the department. Prerequisite: senior standing with major field in psychology. (4 semester hours)

PSY 404. Senior Empirical Research Project in Psychology
Empirical research project based on PSY 403 research proposal. Prerequisite: permission of instructor. (4 semester hours)

See also: BIOL 324L. Animal Behavior; MATH 151. Elementary Statistics; MATH 251. Mathematical Statistics; WGS 260: Indigenous Women's Experiences

Religion

RELG 100. Gods and Creation: East and West
This course is a basic introduction to religion in a diversity of cultural contexts, ranging from the ancient Near East to African traditional religions, and focusing on how different traditions have envisioned the gods, the created order, and the place of humanity within that order. Offered annually fall semester. (3 semester hours)

RELG 255. Islamic Civilization and Culture
This course will trace Islam’s historical development and cultural contributions, analyze its basic beliefs and practices, examine the Muslim experience in America, and assess Islam’s place in the contemporary world. Offered alternate years. (3 semester hours)

RELG 263. The Hebrew Bible and Jewish Tradition
A study of the literature, religion, and faith of ancient Israel in light of the ancient Near Eastern environment, religious and ethical factors within Israel, and the course of historical events and social change. Offered alternate years. (3 semester hours)

RELG 264. The New Testament and Early Christianity
A study of the literature, religion, and faith of early Christianity, as compared to and contrasted with early Judaism and Hellenistic religions. Offered alternate years. (3 semester hours)

RELG 265. Christianity
An introduction to central figures, writings and intellectual movements in the history of Christianity and related religious traditions from late antiquity to the beginning of the Reformation in Europe. Themes will range from significant theological ideas, such as theories about the person of Jesus of Nazareth, to the evolution of Christian moral teaching on abortion and the status of women. Prerequisite: RELG 263 or RELG 264. Offered alternate years. (3 semester hours)

RELG 269. History, Myth and Religion
A general introduction to the phenomenology of religion, examining the patterns of humanity’s experience of the sacred, from ancient to modern times, and how particular beliefs, symbols, and sacred histories (myths) have persisted and interacted in texts, art, and ritual. Offered alternate years. (3 semester hours)

RELG 275. Religions of Asia
An exploration of Asian religious traditions with special reference to cultural origins, social context, and foundational beliefs and practices. Offered alternate years. (3 semester hours)

RELG 321. Faith and Post-Modern Culture
This course explores the unique characteristics and complexities of faith in contemporary cultures. Offered occasionally. (3 semester hours)

RELG 330. Native Americans and the Environment
This seminar will provide an overview of traditional Native American world views and ceremonial life. Special attention will be given to an in-depth exploration of the environmental philosophies and sacred practices of selected peoples. Offered occasionally. (3 semester hours)

RELG 375. Body and Soul: From Antiquity to Post-Modernity
An exploration of the way in which religions have conceptualized the human body, human sexuality, and the soul. The course will examine themes ranging from body-soul dualism to materialism, reincarnation, and afterlife, with special reference to the cultural contexts of these beliefs and the scientific, ethical and philosophical grounds for holding them. Prerequisite: one course in religion, philosophy, or anthropology. Offered alternate years. (3 semester hours)

See also: ANTH 250. Hawaii: Colonialism and Tourism

Science, Health, and Values

SHV 290/390. Internship in Science, Health, and Values
Internship in a setting that permits students to learn firsthand about issues related to health including ethics, health care, and health administration. Prerequisite: sophomore standing, at least one course in Ethics, and permission of instructor; SHV 290 is a prerequisite for SHV 390. Graded: S/U. Offered as needed. (2-4 semester hours)

SHV 399. Independent Study in Science, Health, and Values
The independent study is an opportunity to reflect on the moral ramifications of the knowledge about health and health care acquired in the course of the science, health, and values minor. Prerequisite: SHV minor, junior standing. Offered as needed. (1-3 semester hours)

See also: Science, Health, and Values Minor for related courses.

Social and Economic Justice

SEJ 250. Introduction to Community Organizing
This course helps students bridge the gap between learning about social injustices and doing something about them. By examining social movements of today and yesterday, students will focus on a specific issue and develop a campaign for change in the future. Prerequisite: permission of instructor. Offered alternate years. (3 semester hours)

SEJ 290/390. Internship in Social and Economic Justice
Students will gain experience working for an organization that promotes social and/or economic justice, or on a campaign that is fighting for social and/or economic justice. Arrangements are the students responsibility, but must be made in consultation with the SEJ faculty sponsor and the Career Services Office. Costs are the responsibility of the student. Prerequisite: permission of instructor and at least one course in the minor. Graded: S/U. May be repeated for credit. Offered every semester. (2-4 semester hours)

Social Sciences

SS 290/390. Internship in the Social Sciences
Individually arranged field experiences in the social sciences. Graded: S/U. (2-4 semester hours)

SS 299/399. Independent Study in the Social Sciences
Individually arranged independent study in the social sciences. (1-3 semester hours)

Sociology and Anthropology

SOCA 401. Senior Essay and Research Seminar in Sociology and Anthropology
Preparation of an essay in the field of anthropology or sociology based on class work and individual research. Intended for students majoring in anthropology or sociology. Prerequisite: major in anthropology or sociology. Offered annually fall semester. (4 semester hours)

Sociology

SOC 151. Principles of Sociology
An introduction to the basic concepts and major perspectives of sociology, examining in particular the relationship between personality and society, the study of groups as social systems, and the analysis of societies and their structure. Offered every semester. (3 semester hours)

SOC 200. Humans, Animals and Interaction
What can our close living and working relationships with non-human animals reveal about human society? Why do we eat some animals but consider others (wo)men’s best friend? This course examines our complicated and often contradictory relationships with animals. Prerequisite: SOC 151 or ANTH 161. Offered alternate years. (3 semester hours)

SOC 228. Social Problems
This course examines the complex process through which public issues are transformed into social problems and addressed through social policy. Readings and discussions apply a social constructivist model to several contemporary social problems (e.g., teen pregnancy, HIV/AIDS, obesity, and bullying). Offered annually spring semester. (3 semester hours)

SOC 235. Social Deviance
This course deals with issues of power in the definition of deviance, and the creation, resistance and abandonment of deviant identities. We end the semester with an examination of the “normal”. Prerequisite: SOC 151 or PSY 227 or permission of instructor. Offered alternate years. (3 semester hours)

SOC 277. Social Inequality: Class and Ethnicity
This course examines issues of poverty, wealth, power and powerlessness as they pertain to class and ethnicity. The main focus will be on the United States, but we will also examine global inequalities. Prerequisite: SOC 151 or SOC 228. Offered every spring. (3 semester hours)

SOC 285/385. Topics in Sociology
In-depth study of a selected topic in sociology. Past topics have been: Sociology of Work and Occupations, Gender Differences in Language and Aggression, Hate Crimes and Bias Motivated Violence, Gender. May be repeated for credit with different topics. Offered as needed. (2-4 semester hours)

SOC 290. Internship in Social Service Agencies
Students learn within social agencies and institutional settings where they observe trained professionals working with clients. The settings may include mental hospitals, child care or nursery schools, nursing homes, etc. Costs and arrangements are the responsibility of the student. Prerequisite: one sociology or anthropology course and permission of instructor. Graded: S/U. Offered every semester. (2-4 semester hours)

SOC 294. Research Methods for the Social Sciences
Study of major empirical techniques of quantitative and qualitative research, with an emphasis on the experiment, social survey, content analysis, and structured interviews. Readings on research design and writing research will be complemented by a research project. Prerequisite: one course in the social sciences or permission of instructor. Offered annually spring semester. (4 semester hours)

SOC 315. Men and Masculinities
This course critically examines the matrix of masculinities “out there” in American culture, as well as the structures and practices which contribute to the scripting of gender relations, men’s use of power, and the constraints associated with some masculine forms. Prerequisite: SOC 151 or WGS 148 or ANTH 161 and sophomore standing or permission of instructor. Offered alternate years. (3 semester hours)

SOC 331. Mass Media and Society
Media are primary socializing agents. This course investigates the relationship between media and hyper- consumerism in American society, the ways media contribute to the formation of racial, gender-based, age-based and class-based stereotypes, the relationship between media and democracy and the degree to which media may be an agent of cultural imperialism. Prerequisite: SOC 151 or SOC 228 or SEJ 260. Offered alternate years. (3 semester hours)

SOC 363. Sociological Theory
This course provides a survey of major sociological theorists from the origins of the field to present day. The course explores the important tensions (e.g., continuity/social change, structure/agency, and society/individual) which give rise to competing streams of social thought. Offered annually fall semester. (3 semester hours)

SOC 365. Families and Intimate Relationships
This course provides a broad overview of the historical, social and cultural influences on the family in the U.S. and abroad. We will explore the impact social forces have on romantic love, courtship and mate selection, cohabitation, child-bearing and parenthood, and relationship dissolution. Prerequisite: SOC 151 or SOC 228. Offered alternate years. (3 semester hours)

SOC 390. Advanced Internship in Social Service Agencies
In addition to observing trained professionals working with clients within social agencies and institutional settings, students in this advanced internship assume greater responsibility for working with clients served by the institution. Analysis in the term paper should reflect the knowledge and background of an upper-level student. Prerequisite: five sociology and anthropology courses and permission of instructor. Graded: S/U. Offered as needed. (2-4 semester hours)

SOC 395. Tutorial in Sociology
In-depth study of an area of special interest. Topic determined jointly by a faculty member and student(s) in consultation. Meets weekly for one hour. May be repeated for credit. Offered as needed. (1 semester hour)

SOC 398. Independent Research in Sociology
Topic open. Prerequisite: Adequate preparation for advanced work in the field and permission of Instructor. Offered as needed. May be repeated for credit. (1-3 semester hour)

SOC 399. Independent Study in Sociology
Prerequisite: permission of instructor and approval. May be repeated for credit. Offered every semester. (1-3 semester hours)

Spanish

SPAN 101, 102. Elementary Spanish I and II
Oral training, essentials of grammar, and practice in writing and reading. Second semester also includes dialogues and “lectures” which present current social, economic, and cultural issues of Latin American and Hispanic cultures in the United States. Four meetings per week. Language laboratory, films, slides, and drills. Prerequisite for SPAN 101: no more than two years of Spanish in high school; those with two years of high school Spanish may take a placement exam to determine enrollment at a higher level. Prerequisite for SPAN 102: SPAN 101 or permission of instructor. Offered annually, 101 in fall, 102 in spring. (4 semester hours each)

SPAN 123, 124. Intermediate Spanish I and II
Designed to improve the student’s ability to understand, speak, read, and write Spanish, while concentrating on social and cultural aspects of Hispanic society. The second semester places increased emphasis on reading and writing. Three meetings per week and language laboratory, films, drills. Prerequisite for SPAN 123: SPAN 102, or Level III or IV of high school Spanish, or permission of instructor; those with three years of high school Spanish may take a placement exam to determine enrollment at a higher level. Prerequisite for SPAN 124: SPAN 123 or permission of instructor. Offered annually, 123 in fall, 124 in spring. (3 semester hours each)

SPAN 128. Medical Spanish
This course addresses the need of Wells students in fields such as pre-med, science, biology, etc. of some experience with the Spanish language. In this course, students develop communicative proficiency and accuracy in the use of the Spanish language in medical settings with Spanish-speaking patients. Students are exposed to pertinent information about the Hispanic culture as well when it comes to hospitals, diseases, medical attention, emergencies, etc. Students also participate in language tasks through listening, reading, writing, and conversation. Prerequisite: SPAN 101 and 102, placement exam, transfer credits or POI. (3 credit hours)

SPAN 200. Spanish for the Professions
The course focuses on the importance of bilingualism in the U.S, strategies for lifelong learning, and culture; it includes a review of relevant language. The students will gain necessary skills to read, write and translate documents related to different fields. (3 credit hours)

SPAN 203. Advanced Grammar in Context
Study of structural principles in Spanish. Uses current audiovisual technology (CD, Internet, email, DVD, videos), practice in writing, reading comprehension, and conversation aimed at the development of a reasonable competence in writing and speaking correct Spanish. Prerequisite: SPAN 124, Level V of high school Spanish, or departmental placement exam, or permission of instructor. Offered annually fall semester. (3 semester hours)

SPAN 204. Conversation and Composition Through Film
The course aims to give students a new appreciation of Spanish language cinema and Hispanic culture while improving their written and conversational skills. Prerequisite: SPAN 124, Level V of high school Spanish, or departmental placement exam, or permission of instructor. Offered alternate years. (3 semester hours)

SPAN 207. Introduction to Hispanic Literature
A study of the most pertinent literary works of the Spanish speaking world, giving special attention to the social, ideological, cultural and economic background. Students will also be introduced to literary criticism to apply to reading assignments. Prerequisite: Span 203 or Span 204; POI or Placement exam. (3 semester hours)

SPAN 209. Introduction to Hispanic Culture
This course offers students the fundamentals of the Hispanic culture, utilizing different perspectives and critical readings. Taught in Spanish, its mission is to synthesize the history and traditions of Spain, Latin America, and the Hispanic Caribbean. Prerequisite: Span 203 or Span 204; Placement exam or POI. (3 semester hours)

SPAN 211. Introduction to Hispanic Linguistics
This course is an introduction to basic concepts in Spanish Linguistics and the methodology of its acquisition. It explores fundamental aspects of Spanish linguistics including Spanish variation, Acquisition, phonology among other crucial topics. Prerequisite: Span 203 or Span 204 or POI. (3 semester hours).

SPAN 213. Spanish Translation
This course helps students attain reading and listening proficiency, as well as translation skills of speech, texts and media in Spanish. There is a review of crucial grammar topics that can present difficulty to a translator of Spanish. Prerequisite: Span123/124 or placement exam. (3 semester hours)

SPAN 285. Topics in Spanish and Latin American Studies
In-depth study of a selected topic in Spanish and Latin American Studies. Topics may include Spanish linguistics, topics in Hispanic literature and culture. May be repeated for credit with different topics.

SPAN 290/390. Internship in Spanish
Students wishing to investigate careers in which the Spanish language and culture play an important role may work out a project in consultation with the Spanish Department. In order to be considered for this program the student should have an appropriate background in Spanish. Prerequisite: Evidence of workplace-ready fluency in Spanish and permission of instructor. Graded S/U. Offered annually as needed. (2-4 semester hours)

SPAN 295/395. Tutorial in Spanish and Latin American Studies
In-depth study of an area of special interest. Topic determined jointly by a faculty member and student(s) in consultation. Meets weekly for one hour. May be repeated for credit. Offered as needed. (1 semester hour)

SPAN 299/399. Independent Study in Spanish and Latin American Studies
Prerequisite: permission of instructor and approval. May be repeated for credit. Offered as needed. (1-3 semester hours)

SPAN 301. The Hero in Hispanic Culture and Film
We discuss discourses of the “Hero” in the Hispanic culture and problems that are inherent to the cultural “creation” of what a Hero is and/or stands for. We’ll study fictional or real-life heroes such as Don Quixote, Maradona and Zapata. Taught in Spanish. (3 semester hours).

SPAN 305. Hispanic Culture & the Environment
A study of the most pertinent cultural works (literary, film, etc.) of the Spanish speaking world that address discourses of the environment, sustainability, pollution and ecology, with a critical framework covering social, ideological, cultural and economic analysis. Prerequisite: Span 203 or Span 204; POI or Placement exam. (3 semester hours)

SPAN 312. Modern Hispanic Popular Culture
Course analyzes contemporary popular culture representations in the Hispanic world centered on television, radio, film, comic books, and music, examining the influence it has on identity construction and the shaping of ideology and political struggles. Taught in Spanish. Prerequisite: Span 203 or Span 204, placement exam or POI. (3 semester hours)

SPAN 315. Hispanic Views on Gender and Feminism
In-depth study of issues related to women’s and gender studies in the Hispanic world, focusing on matriarchy, marianismo, machismo and the complex juxtaposition of cultural traditions and progressive movements that challenge the hierarchy of power. Taught in Spanish. Prerequisite: Span 203 or Span 204, Placement exam or POI. Offered occasionally. (3 semester hours)

SPAN 316. Monsters in Hispanic Literature and Film
In-depth study of the ever-presence of monsters in Hispanic literature and film. Groundbreaking texts “monster theory” will serve as foundation to understanding why we fear yet are drawn to horror and monsters. Taught in Spanish. Prerequisite: Span 203 or Span 204. (3 semester hours)

SPAN 317. AfroHispanic History, Literature and Culture
Insight into the historical presence or absence of Africans inSpain and Latin America. Introduction to powerful figures that have shaped the structure of Hispanic identity such as José María y Morelos and San Martín de Porres. Taught in Spanish. Prerequisite: Span 203 or Span 204, Placement Exam or POI. Offered as needed. (3 semester hours)

SPAN 319. Women and Society in 19th Century Spain
A close study of the role of women in Spain and the struggle against their position in a traditional patriarchal society; the birth of feminism and women’s fight toward emancipation. Readings from the most important novelists of the period: Pardo Bazán, Valera, Galdos and Clarín. Prerequisite: SPAN 205 or permission of instructor. Offered alternate years. (3 semester hours)

SPAN 370. Literature and Film: Two Ways of Telling a Story
19th and 20th century Spanish literature: The realism of Galdós, the lyricism of Garcia Lorca and the socio- political commitment of Sender, Delibes and Cela. Emphasis on the impact of their works both as films and on film-making in contemporary Spain. Prerequisite: SPAN 205 or permission of instructor. Conducted in Spanish. Offered alternate years in the fall. (3 semester hours)

SPAN 385. Topics in Spanish and Latin American Studies
In-depth study of a selected topic in Spanish and Latin American Studies. Past topics have included: Renaissance and Baroque in Spanish and Latin American Letters and Societies, Magin Realism in Latin American Literature, and Latin American Masterpieces. May be repeated for credit with different topics. Past topics include Study of developments in dramatic literary expression in Latin America throughout the 20th century. Includes works by Villaurrutia, Carballido, Dragún, Diaz, Gambaro, Luis Rafael Sanchez and Fornes. Prerequisite: at least one 200-level Spanish course or permission of instructor. Offered as needed.

SPAN 401. Spanish Senior Thesis I
In this course, students will work closely with the Spanish faculty in choosing the right topic for their senior thesis. Moreover, students will conduct research on their topic as well as acquiring the critical foundation for their senior thesis. Offered annually Fall semester. (2 semester hours)

SPAN 402. Spanish Senior Thesis II
Selected topics chosen to meet student needs. Conducted in Spanish. Required of seniors majoring in Spanish. Prerequisite: Spanish major with senior standing or permission of instructor. Offered annually spring semester. Prerequisite: Span 401 (2 semester hours)

See also: IES Abroad Santiago, Chile; IES Abroad Granada, Spain; Costa Rica Program; HUM 360. Latin American Literature, Revolution and History; HUM 378. Women and Literature in Latin America

Sport Management

SMGT 101. Introduction to Sport Management
Students will be given an overview of the topics related to sport management including: history and ethics in sport management, structure and policies of sport governance, professional relations, career opportunities, and field experiences in sport organizations. Fall semester. (3 semester hours)

SMGT 210. Contemporary Sport
The duality of sport in modern world is explored and evaluated. Issues include racial and gender equity, player behavior and violence, health and child welfare in youth sports, the National Collegiate Athletic Association and its relation to amateurism, and professional sports and their impact on communities. Fall semester. (3 semester hours)

SMGT 310. Organizational Leadership and Management in Sport
Students will engage in the study of management responsibilities in sport organizations. Principles in leadership qualities, research, organizational goals, structure, conflict, change and decision making. Prerequisite: SMGT 101. Every spring semester (3 semester hours)

SMGT 290/390. Internship in Sport Management
Individually arranged participation in the work at an institution engaged in sport management, such as youth, scholastic, collegiate, minor and major professional sport organization. Prerequisite: SMGT 101 or SMGT 210 (2-4 semester hours)

Sustainability

SUS 101. Introduction to Sustainability
An overview of the concept of sustainability, its evolution and selected methodologies to quantify impacts. This course equips students to develop and evaluate solutions to national and local challenges by balancing factors that are environmental, economic and socio-cultural. Offered every Fall semester.

SUS 290. Internship in Sustainability
Individually arranged participation in work of institutions devoted to sustainability. Prerequisite: Permission of instructor. Graded: S/U.

SUS 390. Advanced Internship in Sustainability
Individually arranged participation in work of institutions devoted to sustainability. Students will develop at a more advanced level the sills and techniques demanded from a previous Sustainability internship.  Prerequisite: SUS 290 and permission of instructor. Graded: S/U.

SUS 401. Senior Project in Sustainability
Students will complete research projects on a topic of their interest .  Prerequisite: Senior standing in Sustainability major. (3 semester hours)

Sustainable Community

SC 100Wellness, Engagement, and Lifelong Learning for Success
Students will be introduced in a holistic manner to the values, resources, and support services of Wells College. Staff and Peer Leaders will help students develop healthy habits for living, learning, and being a contributing member of the Wells community. Students will engage in hands-on and participatory experiences both inside and outside of the classroom which will help them to better understand themselves and the community. Offered annually Fall semester. (3 semester hours)

SC 101. Crafting Meaningful Lives
The first year Wells experience is designed to root students in the creative, transformative world of learning. These writing attentive seminars examine the way engagement in social issues, political action, creative work in the arts and sciences, and the pursuit of knowledge bring meaning and focus to individual lives. Offered annually fall semester. (3 semester hours)

Theatre

THEA 128. Acting One
Exploration of acting through improvisation and foundation work with dialogue and text. An introduction for non-majors and those considering majoring in theatre and dance. Offered annually. (3 semester hours)

THEA 200. Acting Two
Intermediate acting class. Approaches to playing characters, text analysis and ensemble work. Prerequisite: THDA major or permission of instructor. Offered alternate spring semesters. (3 semester hours)

THEA 255. Stage Management
Study of the techniques and theories of production stage management, including leadership, production planning and scheduling, communication, production team coordination, employee contracts, unions, safety regulations, technical rehearsals, trouble shooting, mediation and calling a show. Class projects and assigned production positions required. Offered as needed. (3 semester hours)

THEA 278. Rehearsal and Performance/Theatre (Student)
Acting, stage managing, or serving as assistant director for a student senior thesis project in theatre. Experiential learning: students develop performance skills, discipline, collaborative leadership ability, and an understanding of theatrical production. Prerequisite: permission of instructor. Graded: S/U. May be repeated for credit. Offered as needed. (1-3 semester hours)

THEA 280. Rehearsal and Performance/Theatre
Acting, stage managing, or serving as assistant director for faculty theatre production. Students rehearse 3-4 days per week for 6-9 weeks. Two to three performances and formal critique. Hands-on experience of the creative process that develops performance skills, discipline, collaborative leadership, and an understanding of theatrical production. Prerequisite: permission of instructor. May be repeated for credit. Offered annually. (1-3 semester hours)

THEA 315. Theatre History
An historical exploration of theatre arts from the ancient Greeks to the present, studying the development of drama in selected periods against a background of cultural and social norms. The course focuses on comparison and analysis of texts and production elements. Prerequisite: THDA 100, any ARTH, HIST, or dramatic literature course, or permission of instructor. Offered alternate years. (3 semester hours)

THEA 320. Marginalized Voices: Women Playwrights
Study of American identities as they are portrayed in contemporary performance. Students will read plays; view films; and attend performances selected from diverse ethnic, racial, and class perspectives. Issues include nontraditional casting, censorship, ideas of performance and identity. Prerequisite: THDA 100 or a course in dramatic literature; or permission of instructor. Offered alternate years. (3 semester hours)

THEA 330. Improvisational Theatre
An exploration of improvisational theatre concentrating on the forms of comedic improvisation and Playback Theatre. Students will learn how to think on their feet, share the space with other actors, and explore the art of storytelling. Course work consists of group projects and ensemble acting. Some acting experience helpful, but not required. Prerequisite: THEA 128 or permission of instructor. May be repeated for credit. Offered alternate years. (1 semester hour)

THEA 331. Acting Shakespeare
Students will investigate “speaking the speech” of Shakespeare. In-depth script analysis, pronunciation, and rhythm will give basis for scene and monologue work. Students will research character and text, and will perform scenes as part of their course work. Some acting experience helpful, but not required. Prerequisite: THEA 128 or permission of instructor. May be repeated for credit. Offered alternate years. (1 semester hour)

THEA 332. Acting Styles
In this course, students will research and perform a variety of classical acting styles. Language, voice, and movement of these styles will be considered as students read plays from the various time periods. This course serves to expose the students to advanced styles of acting. Styles may include Greek tragedy, commedia dell’arte, Moliere, Chekhov, Ibsen, and/or Shaw. Some acting experience helpful, but not required. Prerequisite: THEA 128 or permission of instructor. May be repeated for credit. Offered alternate years. (1 semester hour)

THEA 333. Getting the Part: Monologues and Audition Techniques
Students will learn the techniques of researching and finding monologues for audition material. Students will also learn about the process of auditioning and will gain knowledge of various methods for a successful audition. Monologues, headshots and resumes will be prepared and will be “audition ready” by the end of the course. Some acting experience helpful, but not required. Prerequisite: THEA 128 or permission of instructor. May be repeated for credit. Offered alternate years. (1 semester hour)

THEA 338. Methods of Directing
The study of theories, practices and techniques of stage direction, with special emphasis on the function of director as interpreter, organizer, teacher and visionary. Prerequisite: THEA 128, THEA 200, DANC 106, or permission of instructor. Offered alternate years. (3 semester hours)

THEA 349. Advanced Rehearsal and Performance/Theatre (Student)
Acting, stage managing or service as assistant director for a student senior thesis project in theatre. Students further develop performance skills, discipline, collaborative leadership ability, and an understanding of theatrical production. Prerequisite: permission of instructor. Graded: S/U. May be repeated for credit. Offered as needed. (1-3 semester hours)

THEA 350. Advanced Rehearsal and Performance/Theatre
Acting, stage managing or service as assistant director for faculty theatre production at the advanced level. Opportunity to further develop performance and leadership skills. Students rehearse 3-4 days per week for 6-9 weeks. Two to three performances and formal critique. Prerequisite: permission of instructor. May be repeated for credit. Offered annually. (1-3 semester hours)

See also: Theatre and Dance Major; ARTS 310. Women and the Arts; Dance (DANC) courses; MUS 108. Musical Theatre in American Society; MUS 210. World Music; Theatre and Dance (THDA) courses

Theatre and Dance

THDA 100. Introduction to Performing Arts
Students gain practical knowledge of the entertainment business while deepening their theoretical understanding and aesthetic appreciation of fine craftsmanship in the disciplines of dance, music and theatre. Required field trips to live performances are followed by class discussion and writing assignments. Hands-on work in scene shop, box office, and other areas. Additional fee: $80 for theatre tickets and travel. Offered annually fall semester. (4 semester hours)

THDA 130. Introduction to Technical Production
A lecture and studio class to introduce students to terminology and processes of theatrical productions. Students will become familiar with the theatre while learning such skills as hand and machine sewing, shop safety and tool operation, light board operation, and drafting. Students will be required to attend all department productions for in-class discussion. Offered alternate fall semesters. (3 semester hours)

THDA 201. Arts Management
An interdisciplinary approach to arts management. Students will develop skills in marketing, public relations, development, and management of arts programming and organizations through the study of theory as well as through practical experience. Offered alternate spring semesters. (3 semester hours)

THDA 220. Principles of Design
Exploration of script analysis and in-depth research common to all theatrical design, interspersed with studio sessions covering basic rendering techniques, methods of presentation, and drafting skills. Students will be required to attend all department productions for in-class discussion. Offered alternate fall semesters. (3 semester hours)

THDA 225/325. Production Practical
This course will put the theoretical knowledge students have gained in technical theatre and performing arts courses into real use on real productions. They will be assigned a “job” in lighting, scenic, properties, costumes, or hair and makeup at a level consistent with skills, knowledge, and interest and will work in a semi-professional setting under professors, visiting artists, and other students. Prerequisite: THDA 225: permission of instructor; THDA 325: THDA 225 or permission of instructor. THDA 225 may be repeated for credit. Offered every semester. (1-3 semester hours)

THDA 285/385. Topics in Theatre or Dance
In-depth study of a selected topic in theatre or dance. Past topics have included: Women Making Dance, Arts in Education, Dance Un/framed: Modernism and Postmodernism in American Dance, Costume Design, Scenic Design, and Lighting Design. Offered as needed. (2-4 semester hours)

THDA 290/390. Internships in Theatre or Dance
Individually arranged participation in areas of arts management, dance, education or other related careers in the performing arts. Students may submit proposals. Graded: S/U. Offered every semester. (2-4 semester hours)

THDA 395. Tutorials in Theatre or Dance
In-depth study of one topic agreed upon by students and instructor. Past topics have included Connecting Body and Earth, Movement for Athletes, and Advanced Directing. Prerequisite: permission of instructor. May be repeated for credit. Offered as needed. (1 semester hour)

THDA 399. Independent Study in Theatre or Dance
Prerequisite: permission of instructor and approval. May be repeated for credit. Offered every semester. (1-3 semester hours)

THDA 401. Senior Thesis Project in Theatre and Dance
Each student completes a senior thesis project in theatre or dance, or an interdisciplinary combination. Topics must be approved by a faculty member in the discipline. Offered annually. (3 semester hours)

THDA 402. Senior Seminar: Building a Career in Theatre and Dance
Seminar includes presentations and discussion as well as individual meetings with the faculty advisors. Offered annually spring semester. (1 semester hour)

See also: Dance (DANC) courses; Music (MUS) courses; Theatre (THEA) courses

Visual Arts

VART 300. Theorical Frameworks in Visual Arts
This course focuses on the philosophical questions related to the making and interpretation of visual art, introducing theories and frameworks about perception, visual languages, art institutions, and identity. This course will prepare students to critically engage their capstone work. Prerequisite: VART major, junior standing or POI. (3 semester hours)

VART 315. Professional Visual Arts Practices
Students will learn practical skills for artists, art historians and curators. These include documenting, framing and installing work, creating online portfolios, leveraging social media, promotional writing, and applying for grants, exhibitions and graduate study. Prerequisite: VART Major, junior standing or POI. Offered annually. (3 semester hours)

VART 401. Senior Seminar in Visual Arts
A critique seminar exploring concepts, processes, and materials in the development of a focused, goal- oriented studio practice. Critiques of artwork and research encourage thorough investigation of students’ intentions. Required coursework includes artwork, evidence or artistic research, and thesis proposal. Lab fee: $50. Prerequisite: senior VART major concentrating in studio or book arts. Offered annually fall semester. (4 semester hour)

VART 402. Senior Project in Visual Arts
Studio and Book Arts students execute their thesis proposals, culminating in a body of work or comparably rigorous project, assessed through critiques and refined thesis statement. Lab fee: $50. Prerequisite: VART 401. Offered annually spring semester. (3 semester hour)

VART 403. Senior Exhibition in the Visual Arts
Students demonstrate advanced professional practice skills by organizing, planning, and implementing their thesis exhibition. Students also complete an Artist Statement and Artist Talk, during which they must articulate the major concepts, aims, and contemporary context of their own work. Corequisite: VART 402. Offered annually spring semester. (1 semester hour)

See also: Visual Arts Major for a list of courses applicable to the major; Studio Art Courses; Art History Courses; Interdisciplinary Courses in the Arts

Wells Learning Commons Courses

WLLS 121. Research Tools and Skills
This course is designed to teach and strengthen lifelong research and information literacy skills by introducing students to the nature of information and research, and the role of the library in the research process. The method of instruction will be problem-based and require active and collaborative participation. Offered every semester. (1 semester hour)

WLLS 123. Student Development and Values
This course is designed to enhance your effectiveness as a leader at Wells through reflection, exploration of values, understanding of the environment in which you operate, and examining your philosophy of leadership—all within the context of your student organization. (1 semester hour)

WLLS 124. Writing Lab
Offers assistance to students who wish to impove their writing skills. Emphasis on the “paramedic method”, correcting common sentence-level errors, and refining sentence structure provides students with “tool kit” for creating meaningful academic argument across the curriculum. Offered annually. (1.5 semester hours)

WLLS 126. Internship, Career, and Networking
This seven-week course will prepare students for internships and, ultimately, career and graduate school efforts. The couse will educate participants regarding concepts, attitudes and actions to attain internship goals and inspirre ongoing career explorations, and expression and goal attainment efforts. Grade: S/U. Every semester. (1 credit hour)

WLLS 127. Career Preparation
A semester long, one credit course that focuses on the development of professional workplace skills and job search techniques for students who plan to enter their career field upon graduation. Topics such as becoming a professional, marketing yourself, interviewing, and locating and securing a job will be covered. Students who are successful in this course will develop increased career confidence due to their enhanced workplace readiness skills. Prerequisite: Junior standing or above. Offered every semester. (3 semester hours)

WLLS 190. Experiential Learning and Reflection
Individually-arranged field experiences allowing students to transcend boundaries by exploring their interests. Through reflection activities students assess their learning (knowledge, skills, and beliefs) and their own personal development. The student’s academic advisor serves as the faculty sponsor for the experience. Prerequisite: first-year or sophomore standing only. Graded S/U. May be repeated for credit. Offered annually in January or as needed. (1-3 semester hours)

Women's and Gender Studies

WGS 148. Introduction to Women’s and Gender Studies
An interdisciplinary examination of contemporary scholarship on women’s experience. The course will include analysis of women’s political, social, and cultural experiences, using discussions, readings, films, student presentations, and guest lectures. Offered every semester. (3 semester hours)

WGS 230. Women and Gender in Sport
This course will use sport to understand gender relations in a society. It will focus on how sports shape cultural ideas of masculinity and femininity and examine assumptions about how professional and amateur athletes reflect and challenge social norms about gender, sexuality, race and class. This course will invite students to consider the intersection of politics, economics, society, culture and representation in sport and will map out and respond to the multifaceted issues that emerge when women enter the sports world. (3 sem. hrs.)

WGS 245. Body Politics
Analysis of the ways women’s bodies are made the site of power struggles between competing interest groups in society, and the effect of this on individual women’s lives. Topics include body image, reproductive rights, violence, harassment, sexuality, self defense. Prerequisite: WGS 148 or permission of instructor. Offered occasionally. (3 semester hours)

WGS 260. Indigenous Women’s Experiences
Utilizing an interdisciplinary approach, this course will provide an introduction to the lives and experiences of indigenous women from pre-Contact to contemporary times. By centering indigenous women’s experiences, theories, and perspectives, dominant feminist frames of reference will be critically examined. Offered annually spring semester. (3 semester hours)

WGS 285/385. Topics in Women’s and Gender Studies
In-depth study of a selected topic in women’s and gender studies. May be repeated for credit with different topics. Past topics have included: Women’s Utopian/Anti-Utopian Fiction; Transgenderism; Femininities/ Masculinities. Offered occasionally. (3 semester hours)

WGS 290/390. Internship in Women’s and Gender Studies
Students will use their backgrounds in women’s and gender studies to blend their academic expertise with work addressing women’s concerns, such as with the Women’s Hall of Fame, Planned Parenthood, N.O.W. Arrangements are the student’s responsibility in consultation with the instructor(s) and the Office of Career Development Services. Prerequisite: permission of instructor and successful completion of a course listed for the women’s and gender studies major. Graded: S/U. May be repeated for credit. Offered every semester. (2-4 semester hours)

WGS 295/395. Tutorial in Women’s and Gender Studies
Analysis of the ways women’s bodies are made the site of power struggles between competing In-depth study of an area of special interest. Topic to be determined jointly by a faculty member and student(s) in consultation. Meets weekly for one hour. Offered as needed. May be repeated for credit. (1 semester hour).

WGS 301. Feminist Theory
An intensive readings course for upper-level women’s and gender studies majors and minors. A focus on debates and conflicts shaping and affecting the production of feminist knowledge will provide an introduction to feminist theorizing. Emphasis placed on writing as thinking and active discussion in class. Prerequisite: WGS 148, one other course from the women’s and gender studies major, and junior standing or above or permission of instructor. Offered annually fall semester. (3 semester hours)

WGS 310. Feminist Methodologies: Intersectionalities
Exploration of the complexities of race/class/gender/sexuality/ability/nation in the social construction of identities as they impact multiple inequalities. Examines methodologies and theoretical frameworks developed to understand how differing methods of classification and oppression operate as interactive and interdependent systems. Prerequisite: WGS 148, one other women’s and gender studies course, and junior standing or above. Offered annually spring semester. (3 semester hours)

WGS 399. Independent Study/Project in Women’s and Gender Studies
Readings and papers, or a more innovative course comprised of, for example, readings and a creative project, or readings and work with an agency concerned with women’s issues. Prerequisite: permission of instructor and approval. May be repeated for credit. Offered every semester. (1-3 semester hours)

WGS 401. Senior Project in Women’s and Gender Studies
Project of an interdisciplinary nature, informed by the student’s disciplinary focus, concerning gender studies. Directed by a primary advisor (selected from women’s and gender studies faculty) and a secondary advisor. Students will present their work in the Women’s and Gender Studies Colloquium. Prerequisite: senior standing and women’s and gender studies major. Offered annually spring semester. (4 semester hours)

See also: Women’s and Gender Studies Major for a list of courses applicable to the major.

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