Courses of Instruction

Wells College course offerings by subject and number.
Catalog Requirements Notice

The requirements listed on these pages may change by the year as programs and courses are added or altered. Archived Academic Catalogs for previous years can be viewed in pdf form here. These documents contains the specific academic requirements pertaining to those who entered the College before the current year.

Courses use letter grades unless otherwise indicated. The College reserves the right to cancel any course not elected by a sufficient number of students.

Course Listings by Subject

Anthropology

ANTH 161. Introduction to Anthropology
This course introduces the fundamentals of anthropology: what does it mean to "think anthropologically"? Ethnographic case studies reveal the ways in which anthropology encourages us to confront critical issues of survival for indigenous peoples and local cultures. Offered annually fall semester. (3 sem. hrs)

ANTH 210. Material Culture and Museums
The course examines anthropological scholarship on the complex relationship between lived cultures, their material objects, and museums/ethnic theme parks. It explores issues of cultural authenticity, ownership and preservation, political subordination and misrepresentation, and cultural change in a globalizing world. Prerequisites: ANTH 161 or MSEU 100 or POI. Every Spring semester. (3 sem. hrs)

ANTH 222. Anthropology, Religion and Colonialism
An exploration of anthropological approaches to the study of religion. Particular attention is paid to “local” or indigenous religions from Africa, Asia, the Pacific, and elsewhere. Such local religions are studied in relation to world religions, colonization, and global influence. Offered alternate fall semesters. (3 sem. hrs)

ANTH 230. Culture and Gardens
This course will travel through time and space to garden spaces and practices found in a wide range of cultures. (3 semester hours)

ANTH 231. Culture and Water
Water is essential for human existence and culture is inherent to human experience. With that in mind, this applied anthropology course examines how our daily need for water is informed by a diversity of cultural expectations, tastes, and desires, as well as by environmental constraints. The course will also pay particular attention to the challenges of climate change in the 21st century. (3 sem. hrs)

ANTH 250. Hawaii: Colonialism and Tourism
This course is an anthropological examination of the cultures and religions of Hawaii, from pre-contact with the West to contemporary context. Particular attention is paid to the effects of colonialism and tourism. Prerequisite: any social science course. Offered annually fall semester. (3 sem. hrs)

ANTH 270. The Anthropology of Food
This course looks at human relationships with food — the meaning of food, the origins of food, the political economy of food, and food controversies — all with the eye of an anthropologist. Prerequisite: one course in the social sciences. Offered alternate years. (3 sem. hrs.)

ANTH 280. World Archaeology
This course is an introduction to world archaeology. The course provides a survey of archaeological methods and theory. The course highlights the development of the discipline and some of the great civilizations of the ancient world are considered from an archaeological viewpoint. Offered alternate fall semesters (3 sem. hrs.)

ANTH 290/390. Internship in Anthropology
The anthropology internship is designed to be an experience beyond the classroom. The internship might include archaeological fieldwork, service learning in an institution or community, or activism within a particular cultural context. Costs and arrangements are the responsibility of the student. Graded: S/U. Offered as needed. (2-4 sem. hrs.)

ANTH 330. Anthropological Theory and Ethnography
The course surveys contemporary anthropological theory and research. A close reading of several recent ethnographies allows for a critical examination of culture, fieldwork, and ethnographic representation via text, photography, film, and material display. theories and research methods. The course examines a number of anthropological texts that critically reflect on ideas about culture, fieldwork, and ethnographic representation. Offered every spring semesters. (3 sem. hrs.)

ANTH 345. Maya Ethnography
By reading ethnographic texts we will explore issues pertinent to the lives of Maya peoples in Guatemala, Mexico and Belize, such as genocide and resilience, economic globalism, immigration and the relationship between traditional lifeways and well-being. Guatemala’s relationship to the United States will be emphasized. Doing so, we will explore topics of interest to students in anthropology, psychology, economics, international studies and sustainability. Prerequisite: one course in the social sciences, or permission of instructor. Offered alternate years. (3 sem. hrs.)

ANTH 359. The Pacific and Cultural Survival
This course is a study of Pacific cultures and the social, economic, religious, political, and environmental challenges that threaten their survival. Topics such as global warming, depletion of the natural environment, political unrest, and economic crisis are considered in relation to local cultural responses. Prerequisite: one course in anthropology or sociology. Offered alternate years. (3 sem. hrs.)

ANTH 361. Ethnographic Methods
A hands-on course for learning about and practicing ethnographic research methods. We will spend class time examining different styles of write-up, different approaches to getting information and different ways of interpreting data. Students must complete a research project. Prerequisite: one course in the social sciences, ANTH 330, and sophomore standing. Offered annually. (4 sem. hrs)

ANTH 385. Topics in Anthropology
In-depth study of a selected topic in anthropology. Past topics included: Contemporary Native American Issues. May be repeated for credit with different topics. Offered as needed. (2-4 sem. hrs.)

ANTH 399. Independent Study in Anthropology
Prerequisite: permission of instructor and approval. May be repeated for credit. Offered as needed. (1-3 semester hours)

See also: Courses in Sociology; OCS 300. The Anthropological Experience in Hawaii; OCS 305. The Anthropological Experience in Belize

Art

ART 118. Three-Dimensional Design
A fundamental sculpture design course with emphasis on experimentation with materials, forms, and images. Found objects, string, rope, twine, wire, glue, cardboard, foamcore, Styrofoam, wood, plaster, clay, etc. will be used. Wood cutting and carving, plaster mold-making, and ceramic processes will be introduced. Materials fee: $50. Offered alternate years. (3 sem. hrs.)

ART 119. Visual Organization
Principles of two-dimensional design and color theory will be explored in studio-based projects drawing from a variety of disciplines. Current and historical examples will be emphasized, encouraging fluency with our contemporary visual culture. Materials fee: $50. Offered alternate years. (3 sem. hrs.)

ART 121. Beginning Drawing
Students will learn the fundamentals of representational drawing, with an emphasis on hand-eye coordination, observation, and skilled technique. Materials fee: $40. Offered every fall. (3 sem. hrs.)

ART/BKRT 127. Introduction to Print and Graphic Design
Fundamental principles of graphic design and visual communication. Content to include current techniques and tools, including digital processes along with historical processes and hands-on work. Materials fee: $50. Offered alternate years. (3 sem.hrs.)

ART 223. Painting I
Introductory class in painting, focusing on technique and craftsmanship in support of content. Coursework will explore topics including representation, expression, and non-objectivity, in both studio projects and engagement with historical and contemporary examples. Co-requisite: ART 119 or ART 121. Materials fee: $50. Offered alternate spring semesters. (3 sem. hrs.)

ART 241. Introduction to Oxidation Fired Pottery
An introduction to pottery course. The ceramic vessel tradition will be explored using oxidation glazes and firing techniques. The development of vivid surface colors will also be explored. Materials fee: $50. Offered annually fall semester. (3 sem. hrs.)

ART 242. Introduction to Reduction Fired Pottery
An introduction to hand-building and throwing techniques and the ceramic process, using High-Fire gas kiln reduction firing methods. The emphasis will be on hand-building, wheel work, form, and function in the ceramic vessel tradition. Materials fee: $50. Offered annually spring semester. (3 sem. hrs.)

ART 260. Introduction to Darkroom Photography
Introduction to black and white photography focusing on 35 mm SLR camera use, film development and enlargement, and darkroom techniques. Students will also be introduced to historical and contemporary approaches to darkroom photography. $50 materials fee. Offered alternate years. (3 sem. hrs.)

ART 261. Photographic Digital Imaging
An introductory course in digital photographic processes. Students engage with contemporary critical conversations related to digital photography while learning to use Photoshop, DSLR cameras, scanners, and inkjet printers. Materials fee: $50. Offered alternate years. (3 sem. hrs.)

ART 262. Alternative Video in Art and Society
This studio seminar examines time-based art practices used to foster social engagement, political action, and the development of community. Students will shoot, edit, and share video while developing an understanding of the historical & cultural precedents for alternative video production. (3 sem. hrs.)

ART 285/385. Special Topics in Studio Art
In-depth study of a selected topic in Studio Art. May be repeated for credit with different topics. Offered as needed. (3 sem. hrs.)

ART 290/390. Internship in Studio Art
Individually arranged participation in the work of an institution devoted to the visual arts, such as an advertising agency, artist’s studio, or design firm. May be repeated for credit. Graded: S/U. Offered every semester. (2-4 sem. hrs.)

ART 323. Painting II: Oil Painting
Advanced coursework in techniques, strategies, and concepts pertaining to painting, with particular emphasis on the development of an intermediate-level studio practice. Coursework will encourage students to engage with issues and concerns in contemporary Painting. Prerequisite: ART 121 or ART 223. Materials fee: $50. Offered alternate years. (3 sem. hrs.)

ART 350. Creative Art Projects
Advanced study focusing on purposefully merging concepts and techniques, developing informed creative thinking skills. Coursework includes assigned readings, studio projects developed in consultation with instructor, and research. This course increases contemporary art awareness, conceptual intentionality, and technical skill. Prerequisite: Junior VART Major concentration in Book Arts or Studio Art. May be repeated for credit. Offered annually spring semester. (4 sem. hrs.)

ART 395. Tutorial in Art
Advanced work in ceramics, photography and lithography. Materials fee: $50. Offered as needed. (1 semester hour)

ART 396. Tutorial in Art
Advanced work in ceramics, photography and lithography. Materials fee: $50. Offered as needed. (2 sem. hrs.)

ART 399. Independent Study in Studio Art
Prerequisite: two studio art courses and demonstrated advanced skills. May be repeated for credit. Materials fee: $50. Offered every semester. (1-3 sem. hrs.)

See also: Book Arts courses; Wells in Florence; OCS 110. January at the Art Students League — New York City; VART 401. Senior Seminar in Visual Arts; VART 402. Senior Project in Visual Arts; VART 403. Senior Exhibition in the Visual Arts

Art History

ARTH 101. Prehistoric to Renaissance Survey
A survey of major monuments in the history of art and an overview of their relationships to the cultures that produced them. Emphases on literature, politics, philosophy, religion, or society varies according to the period. Offered annually fall semester. (3 sem. hrs.)

ARTH 102. Renaissance to Contemporary Survey
A survey of major monuments in the history of art since 1600, and an overview of their relationships to the cultures that produced them. Emphases on literature, politics, philosophy, religion, or society varies according to the period. Offered annually spring semester. (3 sem. hrs.)

ARTH 105. Art of Non-Western Cultures Survey
A survey of art, architecture and other monuments outside the Western tradition and an overview of their relationships to the cultures that produced them. Topics will include the arts of India, China, Japan, Islamic cultures, Africa, Oceania, and native cultures of the Americas. Offered alternate fall semester. (3 sem. hrs.)

ARTH 235. Contemporary Art
This class will introduce visual and conceptual expressions from recent decades. Students will examine contexts of contemporary politics, markets and aesthetics, and will be introduced to theoretical concepts in order to understand expressions of identity, globalization, technology and postmodernism among other principles. Offered annually. (3 sem. hrs.)

ARTH 255. A Survey of Renaissance Art
A survey of the major forms and directions in Italian art from the 14th through the 17th centuries. Prerequisite: 100-level art history course. Offered occasionally. (3 sem. hrs.)

ARTH 270. A Survey of Modern Art
A survey of European and American art from 1750 to the present. Offered alternate fall semester. (3 sem. hrs.)

ARTH 285/385. Topics in Art History
In-depth study of a selected topic in art history. May be repeated for credit with different topics. Past topics have included Latin American Arts, Shaping Sacred Spaces: Italy 1200-1680, Art and Commerce, Medieval Illuminated Manuscripts, Survey of Baroque Art, and Islamic Art in the Mediterranean. Offered as needed. (3 sem. hrs.)

ARTH 290/390. Internship in Art History
Individually arranged participation in the work of an institution devoted to the visual arts, such as museums, galleries, or libraries. Prerequisite: permission of instructor. Graded: S/U. May be repeated for credit. Offered as needed. (2-4 sem. hrs.)

ARTH 299/399. Independent Study in Art History
Prerequisite: permission of instructor and approval. May be repeated for credit. Offered every semester. (1-3 sem. hrs.)

ARTH 395. Tutorial in Art History
In-depth study of an area of special interest. Topic determined jointly by a faculty member and student(s) in consultation. Meets weekly for one hour. Offered as needed. (1 sem. hr.)

ARTH 401. Senior Seminar in Art History
A research seminar leading to the development of students’ individual research priorities, bibliography, and thesis proposal. Prerequisite: Senior ARTH major and VART 300. Offered as needed, fall semester. (2 sem. hrs.)

ARTH 402. Senior Essay in Art History
A research paper and presentation on a topic approved by the instructor. Prerequisite: ARTH 401. Offered as needed, spring semester. (2 sem. hrs.)

See also: Wells in Florence; ARTS 310. Women and the Arts; MUS 210. World Music

Arts (Interdisciplinary)

ARTS 285/385. Special Topics in the Arts
In-depth study of a selected topic in the arts. May be repeated for credit with different topics. Offered alternate years. (2-4 sem. hrs.)

ARTS 310. Women and the Arts
The course focuses on art of the 19th and 20th centuries by and about women. Some questions to be addressed include: Is the category of gender applicable to aesthetic considerations in the arts? What is masculine and feminine in the arts? Are political concerns relevant to analysis of the arts? Offered as needed. (3 sem. hrs.)

See also: FMS 281. Film and Literature

ASL (American Sign Language)

ASL 101 and ASL 102. Elementary American Sign Language
Courses are designed to develop the skills and knowledge needed to communicate in American Sign Language. Students are first introduced to basic sign language vocabulary, fingerspelling, and aspects of American Deaf culture and history in 101. In 102, students continue to develop American Sign Language vocabulary and finger spelling learning sentence construction as well. Students will continue to learn about Deaf culture, community, and education. Offered annually, 101 in the fall, 102 in the spring. (3 sem. hrs. each)

Biological and Chemical Sciences

BCS 105L. Forensic Science
A general introduction to forensic science as applied to criminal investigation and related fields. Focuses on applied principles of physics, chemistry and biology, and on laboratory techniques and procedures. Offered alternate year spring semester. (4 sem. hrs.)

BCS 290. Internship in Biological and Chemical Sciences
These introductory internships provide an opportunity for well-qualified students considering careers in the biological and chemical sciences. Interns will work with professional scientists. Each student will give a public presentation of her or his internship upon her or his return to campus. Prerequisite: two 100-level BIOL courses or CHEM 107L and CHEM 108L, or permission of instructor. Graded: S/U. May be repeated for credit. Offered every semester. (2-4 sem. hrs.)

BCS 390. Advanced Internship in Biological and Chemical Sciences
This program is intended to encourage advanced students of biological and chemical sciences to discover the areas of overlap between academic study and the application of scientific knowledge and techniques. Work sites may include hospitals, foundations, clinics, and research laboratories of academic, government or industrial affiliation. Students will consult with the instructor during the development of their internships. Upon return to campus, interns will give a public presentation with written and oral components. Prerequisite: five courses in biology and/or chemistry, or permission of instructor. Graded: S/U. May be repeated for credit. Offered every semester. (2-4 sem. hrs.)

BCS 398. Independent Research in Biology and Chemistry
Supervised research in selected areas of biology and chemistry, which may include experimental work in the laboratory or field as well as in-depth library research. Prerequisite: four courses in biology and/or chemistry and permission of instructor. May be repeated for credit. Offered every semester. (1-4 sem. hrs.)

BCS 399. Independent Study in Biological and Chemical Sciences
Prerequisite: permission of instructor and approval. May be repeated for credit. Offered every semester. 
(1-3 sem. hrs.)

BCS 401. Advanced Research
Original laboratory or field research on a biological or chemical problem. Prerequisite: junior or senior class standing and permission of instructor. May be repeated for credit. Offered every semester. (1 or 2 sem. hrs.)

BCS 402. Senior Research Paper in Biological and Chemical Sciences
Independent research paper on a biological or chemical problem, developed under the supervision of a BCS faculty member. Includes constructing a bibliography of relevant literature and writing a paper examining literature. Students who have performed independent laboratory or field research are encouraged to use their results as the focus of this paper. Prerequisite: permission of instructor. Offered annually fall semester. 
(2 sem. hrs.)

BCS 403. Senior Seminar in the Biological and Chemical Sciences
This capstone course covers current research literature in biological and chemical sciences. Students will write and present paper summaries for discussion that are appropriate for both a scientific and non-scientific audience. Post-graduate career opportunities, and how to pursue them, will be considered. Prerequisite: Senior standing. Offered annually fall semester. (4 sem. hrs.)

See also: Biological and chemical sciences majors for a list of related courses counting toward the major; ENVR 131L. Physical Geology; Biology courses; Chemistry courses

Biology

Students may not take two 100-level courses in Biology concurrently.

BIOL 119L. Ecology and Evolution
Organic evolution, the unifying concept in biology, and its relationship with ecology, the distribution and abundance of organisms. The role of ecology and evolution in environmental science and conservation biology. Offered annually in the fall semester. (4 sem. hrs.)

BIOL 130L. Biology of Organisms
The study of the diversity of organisms in all three domains, Archaea, Bacteria and Eukarya, focusing on the fungal, plant and animal kingdoms. The organ structure and functions of these organisms, their reproduction and their development will be studied in an evolutionary context. Offered annually in the spring semester. (4 sem. hrs.)

BIOL 185/285/385. Topics in Biology
In-depth study of a selected topic in biology. Investigation of biological topics of special interest to faculty or students. Areas of applied biology (e.g. health, agriculture, horticulture, conservation) or in-depth study of a particular taxon (e.g., ornithology, bryology, entomology) are likely topics. Level of instruction depends on the topic. Past topics have included ”The Biology of Humans,” “Ornithology,” and “Enology: The Science of Wine.” May be repeated for credit with different topics. Offered occasionally. (2-4 sem. hrs.)

BIOL 214L. Anatomy and Physiology I
Human anatomy and physiology of selected body systems including sensory systems, reproduction, locomotion, nutrition, and metabolism. Laboratories will include anatomical study specimens as well as physiological exercises using student volunteers. Prerequisite: BIOL 130L. Offered annually fall semester. (4 sem. hrs.)

BIOL 226L. Genetics
An introduction to principles of genetics ranging from molecules through populations, covering the genetics of various organisms, theory and practice of standard techniques, and consideration of the promise AND potential ethical dilemmas accompanying new genetic technologies and genomic analyses. Offered annually spring semester. Prerequisite: Chem 213L, 1 semester of any of the 100-level biology classes, or permission of instructor. (4 sem. hrs.)

BIOL 304L. Vertebrate Zoology
The classification, comparative morphology, and evolution of vertebrates. Demonstrations and dissections of selected vertebrates. Prerequisite: BIOL 130L or 214L and another 100-level BIOL course, or permission of instructor. (4 sem. hrs.)

BIOL 305. Terrestrial Field Biology
This course is designed to teach students the major plants and animals found in the habitats of central New York. Students will be able to identify approximately 200 common taxa of plants, mammals, birds, reptiles and amphibians, and insects in the Northeastern region, and will understand the natural history of those species and their relationship to the environment. Prerequisite: BIOL 130L or permission of instructor. (3 sem. hrs.)

BIOL 309. Cellular Biology
A study of cell structure and function, emphasizing molecular components. Topics include metabolism, signaling, secretion, organelle function, growth and division, motility, and death. Laboratory exercises include light and fluorescent microscopy, immunostaining, protein analysis, and cell fractionation. Prerequisites: BIOL 214L, BIOL 130L, BIOL 226L, CHEM 107L, CHEM 108L. Offered every other year during the fall semester. (3 sem. hrs.)

BIOL 310L. Microbiology
The structure, physiology, genetics, and immunology of microorganisms and their applications to fields such as foods, sanitation, and medicine. The laboratory stresses bacteriological laboratory techniques as well as recombinant DNA technology. Prerequisite: BIOL 130L and BIOL 226L, plus CHEM 213L, or permission of instructor. (4 sem. hrs.)

BIOL 312L. Molecular Biology
A molecular genetics course covering structure, function, and regulation of prokaryotic and eukaryotic genomes. The laboratory focuses on applications of current nucleic acid and protein analyses and manipulations. Prerequisite: BIOL 126L and CHEM 214L. (4 sem. hrs.)

BIOL 324L. Animal Behavior
An ecological and evolutionary approach to animal behavior. Lectures and discussions cover feeding, sexual behavior, aggression, cooperation, communication, and the evolution of social behavior. Weekly laboratory and field sessions concentrate on the quantitative study of the behavior of captive and free-living animals. Prerequisite: BIOL 119L and BIOL 130L or POI. (4 sem. hrs.)

BIOL 325L. Limnology
The biological, chemical, geological, and physical aspects of fresh waters. Emphasis will be on the study of lakes and streams as ecosystems, although consideration will also be given to the biology of the organisms that inhabit these bodies of water. Prerequisite: BIOL 119L and BIOL 130L or ENVR 101, or POI. (4 sem. hrs.)

BIOL 330L. Anatomy and Physiology II
Basic physiological mechanisms in animals, including a detailed analysis of the physiology of neural control, excretion, movement, respiration, nutrition, thermoregulation, and reproduction. Prerequisite: BIOL 226L, BIOL 130L, BIOL 214L, or permission of instructor. (4 sem. hrs.)

BIOL 331. Developmental Biology
The patterns and mechanisms of development in animals including gametogenesis, totipotency, cellular interactions, and genetic control of development. Prerequisite: BIOL 130L and BIOL 226L, or permission of instructor. (3 sem. hrs.)

BIOL 363. Advanced Ecology
The interactions that determine the distribution and abundance of organisms. Prerequisite: BIOL 119L and BIOL 130L or permission of instructor. May be repeated for credit with different topics. Offered alternate fall semesters. (3 sem. hrs.)

BIOL 395. Tutorial in Biology
In-depth study of an area of special interest. Topic determined jointly by a faculty member and student(s) in consultation. Meets weekly for one hour. May be repeated for credit. Offered as needed. (1 sem. hr.)

BIOL 399. Independent Study in Biology
Prerequisite: permission of instructor and approval. May be repeated for credit. Offered every semester. (1-3 sem. hrs.)

See also: School for Field Studies; ENVR 131L. Physical Geology; ENVR 340. Sustainable Agriculture; HIST 212. Introduction to the History of Science

Book Arts

BKRT 105. Introduction to Calligraphy
An introduction to the principles of calligraphy through the study of three hands: Roman, Humanistic Miniscule and Italic. Emphasis is on practice and technique, with time devoted to the history of letter forms and to individual projects. Tool kit: $80. Offered annually fall semester. (3 sem. hrs.)

BKRT 115. Hand Bookbinding I
This course introduces students to traditional bookbinding techniques by familiarizing them with the tools, materials and techniques of the craft. Students are expected to produce a set of book models that are clean, structurally sound, and consistent with the class demonstration. Lab/Tool kit fee: $75. Offered every semester. (3 sem. hrs.)

BKRT 120. Letterpress Printing
Introduction to letterpress printing. Demonstrations, readings, and assignments on the mechanics of handsetting and printing from metal type. Traditional and artistically innovative approaches to using this medium will be covered. Each student will create her or his own individual projects: postcards, broadsides, book, etc. Lab/materials fee: $75. Offered every semester. (3 sem. hrs.)

BKRT 121. Hand Papermaking
Students will learn the basic techniques, materials, processes, and concepts used in the Papermaking Studio. Technique will be taught as a method of investigation, a material exploration of ideas. Projects will focus on using papermaking as an image making tool and sculptural material. Projects engaging micro-industry, environmental, and community building models will also be considered. Students will gain skills in harvesting and beating a variety of fibers, sheet forming, watermaking, pulp painting, and high-shrinkage techniques. Additional fee; $50 (1 sem. hr.)

ART/BKRT 127. Introduction to Print and Graphic Design
Fundamental principles of graphic design and visual communication. Content to include current techniques and tools, including digital processes along with historical processes and hands-on work. Materials fee: $50. Offered alternate years. (3 sem. hrs.)

BKRT 215. Hand Bookbinding II
As a continuation of Binding I we will discuss topics related to craftsmanship. While learning more complex structures we will learn experimental image-making techniques with contemporary letterpress printing. The students will create a series of editioned books. Prerequisite: permission of the director of the Book Arts Center. Lab fee: $75. Offered as needed. (3 sem. hrs.)

BKRT 220. Digital Book and Graphic Design
Students will explore classical design principles while learning the digital medium of Adobe InDesign, today’s principal publishing and graphic arts design tool. Poster and brochure design will prepare students for the final project of a short, digitally produced hand-bound volume. Prerequisite: permission of the director of the Book Arts Center. Lab fee: $40. Offered annually. (3 sem. hrs.)

BKRT 225. The History of the Book
Surveys the development of the codex, from its beginnings as a parchment manuscript to a printed book on paper. Broad themes such as patronage, manufacture, usage and reception are considered, as well as the evolution of writing, papermaking and bookbinding. Prerequisite: permission of the director of the Book Arts Center. Offered as needed. (3 sem. hrs.)

BKRT 320. The Printed Book
Each student will produce an edition of letterpress printed books with text and images. Image-making using linoleum blocks, pressure printing, and polymer plates will be taught, as well as simple bookbinding techniques. collographs and polymer plates will be taught, we well as simple bookbinding techniques. Prerequisite: BKRT 120 or permission of the director of the Book Arts Center. Lab/materials fee: $75. (3 sem. hrs.)

BKRT 285/385. Topics in the Book Arts
In-depth study of a selected topic in the book arts. Topics may include paper making, marbling, calligraphy, publication, etc. Materials fee may be required. May be repeated for credit with different topics. Past topics have included: Inspiration and the Medieval Binding, and Introduction to Box Making. Prerequisite: permission of the director of the Book Arts Center. Offered as needed. (2-4 sem. hrs.)

BKRT 290/390. Internship in the Book Arts
Individually arranged participation in the work of an institution devoted to the book arts. May be repeated for credit. Graded: S/U. Offered every semester. (2-4 sem. hrs.)

BKRT 299/399. Independent Study in the Book Arts
Prerequisite: permission of the director of the Book Arts Center. Materials fee may be required. May be repeated for credit. Offered as needed. (1-3 sem. hrs.)

Business

BUS 100. Principles of Business
This course emphasizes on the introduction to the business (profit and non-profit) and how it plays a collaborative role amongst all the related functions in an organization accomplishing overall business objectives. Students will be introduced to key concepts in finance, marketing, production and other functional management areas. Every Fall semester. (3 sem. hrs.)

BUS 201. Principles of Management
Introduction to management. Topics include overview of the management process, management theory, the environment of business, planning and strategy, management functions, and organization design. Offered annually fall semester. (3 sem. hrs.)

BUS 202. Principles of Marketing
An analytical study of marketing fundamentals, with attention given to marketing as a business function, policies and institutions involved in the distribution of goods, product development, pricing and consumer behavior. Prerequisite: ECON 101 and BUS 201. Offered alternate fall semesters. (3 sem. hrs.)

BUS 203. Social Entrepreneurship
A practical and theoretical introduction to the field of social entrepreneurship in which entrepreneurs are using business methods to help solve social challenges often ignored by commerce. Topics include: developing initiatives to make a positive social impact, interpreting the underlying mission of B corporations, and comparing and contrasting opportunities for social intrapreneurship. Offered alternate spring semesters. (3 sem. hrs.)

BUS 204. Business Analytics
Business Analytics is the study of data through statistical and operations analysis, the formation of predictive models, application of optimization techniques and the communication of these results to customers, business partners and colleague executives. Students will master the skills of data analysis, modeling, and spreadsheet use with BUSINESS ANALYTICS when making business decisions in areas such as accounting, finance, human resources, marketing and operations management. This quantitative methods course provides students with the tools to succeed with a student-friendly writing style and complete Excel integration. (3 sem. hrs.)

BUS 213. Principles of Accounting I
An introduction to basic bookkeeping principles, including analysis of transactions, journal entries, posting to ledger accounts, computer applications, and preparation of the trial balance, income statement, balance sheet and cash flow statements. Offered annually in the fall semester. (3 sem. hrs.)

BUS 214. Principles of Accounting II
A study of those accounting concepts employed by internal management. Cost-volume-profit relationships, budgeting, cost accounting, capital planning and price estimating are some of the topics covered. Prerequisite: BUS 213 or equivalent. Offered alternate spring semesters. (3 sem. hrs.)

BUS 220. International Business
This course covers the socioeconomic, political, cultural, and legal environments in which international business decisions are made. The course develops skill in methods and strategies of conducting international and multinational business in a global context. Prerequisite: ECON 101 and/or ECON 102 or BUS 201. Offered alternate spring semesters. (3 sem. hrs.)

BUS 230. Introduction to Human Resource Management
Principles of managing personnel in an organization. Topics include hiring, training, evaluating and compensating employees. Prerequisite: BUS 201. Offered annually fall semester. (3 sem. hrs.)

BUS 231. Principles of Project Management
This course will introduce students to project management fundamentals, with an emphasis on planning. Students will acquire knowledge on areas such as project life cycles, organization and charters, work breakdown structures, responsibility matrixes and the planning, budgeting and scheduling of systems. Prerequisites: BUS 201 and MATH 151. Offered every fall semester. (3 sem. hrs.)

BUS 250. Innovation, Creative Problem Solving
Students learn a creative problem-solving methodology consisting of developing empathy, prototyping process, collaboration, iteration and feedback. The objective is to enable students to address challenges in business and other disciplines, such as the social and physical sciences. Offered annually. (3 sem. hrs.)

BUS 253. Investment Management and Strategies
An introduction to investments, markets asset classes and account types, combined with methodologies to develop investment strategies. Emphasis on practical knowledge in order to make personal investment decisions and guide the Wells Affiliates Portfolio. Prerequisite: BUS 100 or WLLS 110 or BUS 213. (3 sem. hrs.)

BUS 302. Brand Management
Brand management is the discipline that links strategic business objectives, marketing and operations. The fundamental focus of this course is to deliver theoretical and practical understanding of brand management in order to leverage marketing efficiencies in organizations. High performance companies (for-profit or not-for-profit) understand the importance of their brand and actively manage brand equity. This course will address the importance of brands building, measuring and managing. Prerequisites: ECON 102, BUS 201 and BUS 202. (3 sem. hrs.)

BUS 303. Entrepreneurship and Small Business Management
A practical and theoretical introduction to the issues faced by small business people. Topics include: establishing and funding the business or social organization, finance, marketing and personnel management. Prerequisite: BUS 100 or BUS 201, or permission of instructor. (3 sem. hrs.)

BUS 305. Legal Environment of Business
Introduction to the legal system and business law. Students will learn about the legal system, constitutional and administrative law, contracts, torts, product liability and employment law. Prerequisite: POLS 155 or BUS 201, or permission of instructor. Offered annually. (3 sem. hrs.)

BUS 310. Corporate Finance
A study of the theory and practice of corporate financial decision-making. Topics include investment decisions and securities analysis, capital structure and budgeting, working capital management, and strategic planning. Prerequisite: ECON 101 or ECON 102, BUS 201, and BUS 213. (3 sem. hrs.)

BUS 350. Business Strategy
A study of the theory and practice of corporate decision-making in areas of markets, products, competitive analysis, organizational design, differentiation, technology and other external and internal factors. Topics are taught using the case-study method. Prerequisites: ECON 101 and ECON 102, BUS 201. (3 sem. hrs.)

BUS 360. Strategic Marketing and E-commerce
A study of the theory and practice of utilizing databases and the internet to increase the effectiveness of sales and marketing for businesses and fundraising and servicing for social organizations. Topics are taught and extensively illustrated though use of the internet. Prerequisites: ECON 101 or ECON 102, BUS 201, MATH 151, and BUS 202. (3 sem. hrs.)

BUS 365. Business Sustainability and Social Responsibility
Course provided a unique focus regarding the burgeoning concern for sustainability and sustainable organizational practices. The course looks at how large multinational corporations, as well as smaller organizations, are making substantial commitments to the “triple bottom line” of economic success, social responsibility, and environmental protection. Prerequisite: BUS 100, BUS 201, SUS 101, or permission of instructor. (3 sem. hrs.)

BUS 368. Sales and Sales Management
This course covers the important but increasingly complex skills necessary to both sell effectively and manage a sales force selling physical and intangible goods. Topics are taught and extensively illustrated through case- studies. Prerequisite: BUS 201, BUS 202, MATH 151 or MATH 251. (3 sem. hrs.)

BUS 385. Topics in Contemporary Business Issues
In-depth study of a selected topic in business. Application of economic theories and management principles to current business issues. Topics will vary with student interest, and the course may be taught by visiting faculty. Prerequisite: ECON 101 or ECON 102, and BUS 201. May be repeated for credit with different topics. Offered alternate spring semesters. (2-4 sem. hrs.)

BUS 290/390. Internship in Business
Individually arranged participation in the work of an institution devoted to business. May be repeated for credit. Graded: S/U. Offered every semester. (2-4 sem. hrs.)

BUS 395. Tutorial in Business
In-depth study of an area of special interest. Topic determined jointly by a faculty member and student(s) in consultation. Meets weekly for one hour. May be repeated for credit. Offered as needed. (1 sem. hr.)

BUS 402. Senior Seminar in Business
Students complete a senior research report in an acceptable business format to completely explore a topic of current relevance in business or management. Research topic must be approved in advance by Business Center Director. Prerequisite: Completed all Business Major requirements and permission of Business Center Director. Offered annually spring semesters. (4 sem. hrs.)

See also: Economics courses; Costa Rica Business Program

Chemistry

CHEM 107L. General Chemistry
A study of the properties of matter with emphasis upon the relation of properties to structure: atomic theory, chemical bonding, the periodic table, and stoichiometry. Offered annually fall semester. (4 sem. hrs.)

CHEM 108L. Chemical Analysis
The second semester of the introductory chemistry sequence. A study of solutions, solubility, chemical equilibria, acid-base theory, oxidation-reduction reactions, kinetics, and thermodynamics. Quantitative analytical methods, such as volumetric, gravimetric, colorimetric, and electroanalytic techniques will be emphasized in the laboratory. Prerequisite: CHEM 107L. Offered annually spring semester. (4 sem. hrs.)

CHEM 213L. Organic Chemistry I
Structure, nomenclature, physical properties, stereochemistry, reactions, and reaction mechanisms of alkanes, alkyl halides, alkenes, alkynes, alcohols, ethers, and conjugated compounds will be studied. Introduction to infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in structure determination. Prerequisite: CHEM 108L. Offered annually fall semester. (4 sem. hrs.)

CHEM 214L. Organic Chemistry II
A continuation of CHEM 213L. There will be an emphasis on reaction mechanisms, the chemistry of functional groups and the logic of synthesis. Additional topics include an introduction to infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in structure determination. Prerequisite: CHEM 213L. Offered annually spring semester. (4 sem. hrs.)

CHEM 301. Physical Chemistry
Special emphasis on those aspects of the subject pertinent to biology and biochemistry. Gases and liquids; thermodynamics and thermochemistry; properties of solutions; chemical equilibria; electrode potentials; reaction kinetics. Prerequisite: CHEM 213L and MATH 111 and PHYS 111L or permission of instructor. Offered alternate fall semester (3 sem. hrs.)

CHEM 303. Medicinal Chemistry
The chemistry, biological evaluation, and mode of action of representative types of drugs; consideration of structure-activity relationships. Current topics selected for detailed study depend upon the interests of those enrolled in the class. Prerequisite: CHEM 214L or permission of instructor. Offered occasionally. (3 sem. hrs.)

CHEM 308L. Laboratory in Physical Chemistry
Study of selected physicochemical topics in the laboratory. Examples include calorimetry, bond energies, order in liquid crystals and reaction kinetics. Three hours of laboratory per week. Prerequisite: CHEM 301. Offered alternate fall semester. (1 sem. hr.)

CHEM 315L. Inorganic Chemistry
A study of the bonding, structure, and reactions of inorganic complexes with particular attention to coordination compounds. Topics to be discussed include atomic structure, ionic and covalent bonding, valence bond theory, molecular orbital theory, and organometallic chemistry. Prerequisite: CHEM 108L or PHYS 212L or permission of instructor. Offered alternate spring semester. (4 sem. hrs.)

CHEM 323L. Biochemistry
A study of the structures of biomolecules and the dynamic aspects of biochemical reactions, especially the structure and reactions of proteins, carbohydrates and lipids, with emphasis on enzyme kinetics and mechanisms, biochemical thermodynamics. Three hours of laboratory per week. Prerequisite: CHEM 214L. Offered alternate fall semester. (4 sem. hrs.)

CHEM 326. Biochemical Pathways
A study of the reactions in the biochemical pathways of living organisms, especially metabolism and anabolism of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins, with an emphasis on regulation of interconnected pathways. Prerequisite: Chem 214L or permission of instructor. Offered every other year. (3 sem. hrs.)

CHEM 327L. Instrumental Analysis
Introduction to modern physicochemical methods of analysis with discussion of the theoretical concepts involved, and the application of these in the laboratory. Prerequisite: CHEM 214L or permission of instructor. CHEM 315L is highly recommended. Offered alternate spring semester. (4 sem. hrs.)

CHEM 331. Solid State Chemistry
A survey of topics in the field of solid state chemistry, including symmetry and group theory, crystallography, crystal lattice packing, and phase diagrams. Particular emphasis will be placed on the relationship of three-dimensional structure to physical and chemical properties. Prerequisite: CHEM 108L or PHYS 212L or permission of instructor. Offered alternate fall semester (3 sem. hrs.)

CHEM 385. Topics in Chemistry
In-depth study of a selected topic in chemistry. May be repeated for credit with different topics. Offered as needed. (2-4 sem. hrs.)

CHEM 395. Tutorial in Chemistry
In-depth study of an area of special interest. Topic determined jointly by a faculty member and student(s) in consultation. Meets weekly for one hour. May be repeated for credit. Offered as needed. (1 sem. hr.)

CHEM 399. Independent Study in Chemistry
Prerequisite: permission of instructor and approval. May be repeated for credit. Offered every semester. (1-3 sem. hrs.)

See also: ENVR 131L. Physical Geology; HIST 212. Introduction to the History of Science

Computer Science

CS 100. Introduction to Computers and Microsoft Office
This course covers the fundamentals of modern computing for students in non-technical majors. Topics include operating systems, Microsoft Office Suite, fundamentals of hardware and software, file management, networking and the internet, digital security, and the impact of computing and the internet on society. (3 sem. hrs)

CS 131. Programming I: Procedural Methods
An introduction to computer programming. The course will include basic data and control structures, an overview of program organization and problem solving using structured programming, and recursion. (3 sem. hrs.)

CS 132. Programming II: Object Orientation
This is the second course in computer programming and the continuation of CS 131. This semester deals with more advanced topics such as generative recursion while maintaining the strong focus on design principles learned in CS 131.(3 sem. hrs.)

CS 225. Computer Organization and Architecture
Computers operate according to specific organization and logic. The logic is at the most basic level. In order to understand how computers work at the most thorough level, this course emphasizes the importance of understanding their language and organization. Prerequisite: CS 131. Offered alternate spring semesters. (3 sem. hrs.)

CS 233. Object-Oriented Programming
This course explores object-oriented programming principles using programming language. Emphasis is placed on event-driven programming methods, including creating and manipulating objects, classes, and using object-oriented tools such as the class debugger. Prerequisites: CS 131 and CS 132, or permission of instructor. (3 sem. hrs.)

CS 234. Data Structures
Theory and implementation of data structures using an object-oriented programming language; investigation of how and why different data structures should be used in various programming situations. The data structures will include arrays, stacks, queues, lists, trees and graphs. Prerequisites: CS 233 or permission of instructor. Offered annually. (3 sem. hrs.)

CS 290. Internship in Computer Science
Individually arranged work relating to computers in an industrial, academic, or governmental setting. Primary responsibility rests with the student for making her or his own arrangements in consultation with the instructor. Prerequisite: Three hours or equivalent in computer science and permission of instructor. Graded: S/U. May be repeated for credit. Offered every semester. (2-4 sem. hrs.)

CS 322. Algorithms: Design and Analysis
A study of algorithmic solutions to problems, including techniques used in the design of algorithms, analysis of complexity, and proof of correctness. Usual types of algorithms include greedy algorithms, divide and conquer, flow problems, and dynamic programming. Prerequisite: Math 267. Offered alternate spring semesters. (3 sem. hrs.)

CS 325. Database Systems
An introduction to database management systems with emphasis on the relational model. Topics include the entity-relationship model, relational algebra and calculus, principles of database design, query processing, and file organization. A project will be implemented in a commercial database package. Prerequisite: CS 131 or permission of instructor. Offered alternate spring semesters. (3 sem. hrs.)

CS 341. Linux Systems Administration
An introduction to Unix/Linux system administration and network administration using Linux and Virtual Machine software. Topics covered include basic operating system concepts, command line administration and utilities, file system management, process control, multitasking, and shell programming. A graphical interface for system administration and management will also be used. Students spend a portion of the class installing, configuring, and administering their own Linux system. (3 sem. hrs.)

CS 285/385. Topics in Computer Science
In-depth study of a selected topic in computer science. Past topics have included: discrete mathematics with computer applications; network architecture and programming. May be repeated for credit with different topics. Offered as needed. (3 sem. hrs.)

CS 390. Advanced Internship in Computer Science
Individually arranged work relating to computers in an industrial, academic, or governmental setting mainly for advanced students. Primary responsibility rests with the student for making her or his own arrangements in consultation with the instructor. Prerequisite: CS 290 and permission of instructor. Graded: S/U. May be repeated for credit. Offered every semester. (2-4 sem. hrs.)

CS 395. Tutorial in Computer Science
In-depth study of an area of special interest. Topic determined jointly by a faculty member and student(s) in consultation. Meets weekly for one hour. May be repeated for credit. Offered as needed. (1 sem. hr.)

CS 399. Independent Study in Computer Science
Prerequisite: permission of instructor and approval. May be repeated for credit. Offered every semester. (1-3 sem. hrs.)

See also:MATH 267. Discrete Mathematics; MATH 301. Applied and Computational Mathematics; PHYS 221L. Principles of Electronics  

Creative Writing

CREA 271. Short Story Writing
Practice in fiction writing, including exercises in point-of-view, dialogue, setting a scene, and introducing characters. Emphasis will be on student writing in a workshop format, but stories by outside authors, including visiting writers, will also be studied. Offered annually spring semester. (3 sem. hrs.)

CREA 272. Poetry Writing
Practice in writing poems, with discussion focusing on imagery, rhythm, voice, and aspects of formal construction. Emphasis will be on student poetry in a workshop format, but poems by outside authors, including visiting writers, will also be studied. Offered annually fall semester. (3 sem. hrs.)

CREA 275. Creative Nonfiction
Practice in writing creative nonfiction, in particular the personal essay and lyric essay, with emphasis on workshopping student pieces. Discussion will focus on elements of craft, style and discovery of individual voice and subject. Work by outside authors, including visiting writers, also will be studied. Offered annually. (3 sem. hrs.)

CREA 371. Advanced Fiction Writing
Advanced work in fiction writing for those who have distinguished themselves in CREA 271. Workshops and conferences. Some classes to be taught by visiting writers. Prerequisite: CREA 271. Offered alternate years. (3 sem. hrs.)

CREA 372. Advanced Poetry Writing
Advanced work in poetry writing for those who have distinguished themselves in CREA 272. Workshops and conferences. Some classes to be taught by visiting poets. Prerequisite: CREA 272. Offered alternate years. (3 sem. hrs.)

CREA 375. Advanced Creative Nonfiction
Advanced work in creative nonfiction writing for those who have distinguished themselves in CREA 275, workshops and conferences. Some classes to be taught by visiting writers. Prerequisite: CREA 275. Offered alternate years. (3 sem. hrs.)

See also: Courses of instruction in English; Advanced Studies in England (Bath); University of Stirling; University of York; FMS 281. Film and Literature; OCS 215. London Theatre

Criminal Justice

CRIM 115. Introduction to Criminology
This course critically examines the development of classical and contemporary theories of crime, historical and contemporary crime trends in the U.S., official data sources, and the criminal justice system. Offered every fall semester. (3 sem. hrs.)

CRIM 201. Juvenile Justice
While young people have always been involved in rule-breaking behavior, it was not until the early 19th century that the concept of the juvenile delinquent took shape. Through reading and discussion, we trace the development of this social category and explore the criminal justice system’s response to this particular type of offender. (3 sem. hrs.)

CRIM 285/385. Special Topics in Criminal Justice
In-depth study of a selected topic in crime. May be repeated for credit with different topics. Offered as needed. (2-4 sem. hrs.)

CRIM 290. Internship in Criminal Justice
Individually arranged participation in work of institutions devoted to social control or criminal justice. The setting may include prisons, police departments, the courts, etc. Costs and arrangements are the responsibility of the student. Graded: S/U. Offered every semester. (3-4 sem. hrs.)

CRIM 301. Criminal Justice
This course provides an overview of the U.S. criminal justice system. Topics will include the development of law, the enforcement of law by the police, the determination of guilt and innocence by the courts, and sentencing. Prerequisite: CRIM 115 or sophomore standing, or permission of instructor. Offered every fall semester. (3 sem. hrs.)

CRIM 302. Corrections
This course examines the history, development and current status of the U.S. correctional system. Topics will include the correctional system’s efforts at punishing and/or rehabilitating offenders through incarceration (e.g., jail, prison and other residential facilities), probation and parole. Prerequisite: CRIM 115 or sophomore standing, or permission of instructor. Offered every spring semester. (3 sem. hrs.)

CRIM 303. Comparative Systems of Social Control
The study of criminal justice in contemporary society requires a focus on the diverse institutions and mechanisms of justice and social control that exist throughout the developed and developing world. Through a cross-cultural comparative approach, the course will explore contemporary topics in international law, including genocide, caste-system, transnational crimes. Prerequisite: CRIM 115, CRIM 301, or permission of instructor. (3 sem. hrs.)

CRIM 390. Internship in Criminal Justice
Individually arranged participation in work of institutions devoted to social control or criminal justice. The setting may include prisons, police departments, the courts, etc. Students will develop at a more advanced level the skills and techniques demanded for in a previous criminal justice internship. Costs and arrangements are the responsibility of the student. Graded: S/U. Offered every semester. (3-4 sem. hrs.)

CRIM 399. Independent Study in Criminal Justice
Individually arranged readings and assignments in a focused area within criminal justice arranged in consultation with the minor coordinator. Prerequisite: permission of instructor and approval. Offered every semester. (1-3 sem. hrs.)

CRIM 401. Senior Research Seminar
This course requires seniors majoring in criminal justice to prepare an essay based on class work and original individual research and to present this work to the campus community. Prerequisite: senior criminal justice majors. Offered every spring semester. (4 sem. hrs.)

Dance

DANC 205. Modern Dance Technique I
Foundations of Western modern dance technique, for less experienced dancers. Students work from an anatomical and movement analysis perspective to improve alignment, strength, flexibility, dynamic range, style, expressiveness. Introduces a range of contemporary techniques. Satisfies physical education activity requirement. May be repeated for credit. Offered annually in the fall semester. (2 sem. hrs.)

DANC 206. Ballet Technique I
Foundations of classical ballet technique, for less experienced dancers. Develops alignment, strength, flexibility, dynamic range, style, expressiveness. Articulation of Russian and Italian ballet styles. Satisfies physical education activity requirement. May be repeated for credit. Offered annually. (2 sem. hrs.)

DANC 210. Dance Technique
This course will teach students the foundations of dance technique. Students will develop strength, flexibility, creativity, dynamic range and style. The genre of dance changes each semester; therefore, this class may be repeated for credit. (2 sem. hrs)

DANC 279. Rehearsal and Performance/Dance (Student)
Performing, stage managing or serving as assistant choreographer for a student senior thesis work in dance. Experiential learning: students develop performance skills, discipline, collaborative leadership ability and an understanding of theatrical production. Graded: S/U. May be repeated for credit. (1-3 sem. hrs.)

DANC 305. Modern Dance Technique II
In-depth study of principles and techniques of modern dance, for more experienced dancers. Further develops physical skills, performance presence, musicality. Students study and compare a range of contemporary techniques (Cunningham, Limón, Hawkins) from a Laban Movement Analysis perspective. Satisfies physical education activity requirement. Prerequisite: DANC 205 or DANC 206 or permission of instructor. May be repeated for credit. Offered annually in the spring semester. (2 sem. hrs.)

DANC 306. Ballet Technique II
In-depth study of principles and techniques of classical ballet, for more experienced dancers. Further develops alignment, strength, flexibility, dynamic range, style, expressiveness. Emphasis on both historical perspective and current developments in ballet training, as well as musicality and performance quality. Satisfies physical education activity requirement. Prerequisite: DANC 205 or DANC 206 or permission of instructor. May be repeated for credit. Offered annually. (2 sem. hrs.)

DANC 316. Dance History
A cross-cultural study of Western and non-Western theatrical and ritual dance, with attention to selected choreographers, performers and theorists. Students improve ability to perceive, analyze and articulate the visual-kinesthetic experience of dance. Movement analysis theory and issues in dance criticism explored by viewing live and recorded performances. Prerequisite: any 100-level course in theatre, dance, music, art history or studio art, or permission of instructor. Offered alternate years. (3 sem. hrs.)

DANC 349. Advanced Rehearsal and Performance/Dance (Student)
Performing at an advanced level, stage managing, or service as assistant choreographer for a student senior thesis work in dance. Students further develop performance skills, discipline, collaborative leadership ability and an understanding of theatrical production. Prerequisite: permission of instructor; corequisite: for performers, any dance technique class. Graded: S/U. May be repeated for credit. Offered annually. (1-3 sem. hrs.)

DANC 395. Tutorial in Dance
One-hour tutorial in dance; selected topics. Recent topics include: Teaching Dance; Advanced Dance Studies; Advanced Solo Repertory; Advanced Choreography; and Bodywork. May be repeated for credit with different topics. Offered as needed. (1 sem. hr.)

See also: Theatre Major; Theatre (THEA) courses

Economics

ECON 101. Principles of Macroeconomics
An in-depth survey of the basic principles of economic analysis and their application with emphasis on the macroeconomic concepts and issues of aggregate income, economic growth, employment, unemployment, inflation and interest rates. The effects of fiscal and monetary policies on the economy and their role in economic stabilization are studied. (3 sem. hrs.)

ECON 102. Principles of Microeconomics
A survey of basic microeconomic concepts with emphasis on the concepts of supply and demand, production and distribution. Special attention will be paid to ideas of competition, market structure, efficiency and equity using examples from current policy discussions. Offered annually in the spring semester. (3 sem. hrs.)

ECON 209. Introduction to Political Economy
An analysis of economic theories focusing on the processes of production and accumulation within institutional and political contexts. Topics include the labor theory of value, monopoly capitalism and the social structure of accumulation. (3 sem. hrs.)

ECON 233. Economics of Health and Medical Care
A critical examination of important health and medical care issues through economic analysis. Emphasis will be placed on the increasingly common questions and dilemmas of efficiency, access to care and fairness in the financing and delivery of medical services. Offered alternate years. (3 sem. hrs.)

ECON 255. The Political Economy of Globalization
The world economy from the standpoint of producing and distributing a surplus. Topics include classical theories of imperialism, global finance and global and domestic economies in an era where economic growth is limited by peak oil and climate change. Prerequisite: ECON 101 or ECON 102 or INTL 151. Offered alternate years. (3 sem. hrs.)

ECON 286. Money, Banking and Capital Markets
A study of the functions of money, the operations of commercial and central banking, and the operations of money and capital markets with emphasis on corporate equities, government securities and municipal bonds. The roles of financial intermediaries and government will also be considered. Prerequisite: ECON 101. Offered alternate years. (3 sem. hrs.)

ECON 290. Internship in Economics and Business
Students are encouraged to discover for themselves the use of economic principles and techniques in various institutional settings, including research, institutes, government agencies, banks, corporations, etc. Prerequisite: ECON 101 or ECON 102, or permission of instructor. Graded: S/U. Offered as needed. (2-4 sem. hrs.)

ECON 302. Managerial Economics
An application of economic theory to real-world problems of management, focusing particularly on how supply and demand, marginal analysis, opportunity cost and maximization fit into a world of profit and loss statements, capital budgets and multiple goals. Prerequisite: ECON 102 and MATH 111, or exemption or higher-level course in calculus. Offered alternate fall semesters. (3 sem. hrs.)

ECON 303. Intermediate Microeconomic Theory
A study of optimal allocation of resources in a price system under a pure competitive market structure: demand analysis, production and cost relationships, general equilibrium and an introduction to welfare economics. Prerequisite: ECON 101, ECON 102, and MATH 111 or exemption or higher-level course in calculus. Offered annually in the fall semester. (3 sem. hrs.)

ECON 306. Intermediate Macroeconomic Theory
A study of alternative theories of the nation’s income, employment and price level, in relation to private consumption, investment expenditures, public expenditure and taxation. Prerequisite: ECON 101 and ECON 102. Offered annually in the spring semester. (3 sem. hrs.)

ECON 314. Econometrics
A study of the derivation and application of statistical methods used in economic research. The focus of the course is on economic estimation and regression analysis, although other methods such as analysis of variance are examined. There will be extensive applications of the techniques developed in the course to economic problems. Prerequisite: ECON 101 and/or ECON 102, and MATH 111 or MATH 151 or MATH 251. Offered alternate years. (3 sem. hrs.)

ECON 325. Ecological Economics
This course models the economy as a subsystem of a larger ecosystem, and addresses questions such as optimal scale, investments in natural capital, sustainability and thermodynamic limits to growth. Sustainable development is treated within the historical context of uneven development. Prerequisite: ECON 102 or ENVR 101L. Offered alternate years. (3 sem. hrs.)

ECON 326. Energy and the Economy
This course focuses upon the history of energy’s role in the transformation from preindustrial to contemporary society. The analytical framework includes theories of political economy, the energy return on investment and the internal and biophysical limits to economic growth. Prerequisite: ECON 101 or ECON 102 or ENVR 101. Offered alternate years. (3 sem. hrs.)

ECON 330. The World Economy: Trade and Finance
An analysis of how the world economy, including international economic interdependence, works. Theories and models will be studied concerning trade and financial issues such as the political economy of free trade versus protectionism, foreign direct investment and foreign exchange markets. Prerequisite: ECON 101 or ECON 102. Offered alternate years. (3 sem. hrs.)

ECON 340. History of Economic Analysis
The evolution of economic intellectual history from precapitalist doctrines until the 20th century. Course will emphasize the development of theories of value and price, production and distribution, with special emphasis given to the labor theory of values. Prerequisite: ECON 101 or ECON 102. Offered alternate years. (3 sem. hrs.)

ECON 350. Economics of Developing Countries
A survey of the various economic theories of structural change and growth in developing nations. Particular attention will be paid to the issues of measurement of human welfare and the global distribution of resources. Prerequisite: ECON 101 or ECON 102. Offered alternate years. (3 sem. hrs.)

ECON 385. Topics in Contemporary Economic Problems
In-depth study of a selected topic in economics. This course applies economic reasoning to a changing set of specific social and/or theoretical issues. Topics will be selected on the basis of student and faculty interest. Past topics have included An Economic History of the Great Depression. Prerequisite: ECON 101 or ECON 102. May be repeated for credit with different topics. Offered as needed. (2-4 sem. hrs.)

ECON 390. Advanced Internship in Economics and Business
In an institutional setting of their choice, students are provided with an opportunity to apply more advanced economic concepts and analysis in a practical context. Prerequisite: ECON 101 and ECON 102, and ECON 303 and ECON 306 or ECON 290. Graded: S/U. Offered as needed. (2-4 sem. hrs.)

ECON 395. Tutorial in Economics
In-depth study of an area of special interest. Topic determined jointly by a faculty member and student(s) in consultation; meets weekly for one hour. May be repeated for credit. Offered as needed. (1 sem. hr.)

ECON 399. Independent Study in Economics and Business
Prerequisite: permission of instructor and approval. May be repeated for credit. Offered as needed. (1-3 sem. hrs.)

ECON 402. Senior Seminar in Economics and Management
The seminar explores methods and content of orthodox economics, political economy and the various facets of management thought. Students will present articles from professional journals, prepare for comprehensive exams and develop and present an original piece of economic or managerial research. Prerequisite: ECON 101 and ECON 102, or BUS 201 and BUS 303. Offered annually in the spring semester. (4 sem. hrs.)

See also: Business courses

Education

EDUC 105. Teaching in a Diverse Society
In this course students seek answers to the question "What is an excellent teacher?" and examine what it takes to meet the needs of an increasingly diverse student population in today's schools. Offered every semester. (3 sem. hrs.)

EDUC 190/290/390. Internship in Education
These courses are individually arranged participation in an educational institution. May be repeated for credit. Graded: S/U. Offered as needed. (2-4 sem. hrs.)

EDUC 215. Issues in Multicultural and English Language Learner Education
This course explores foundational and recent research in multicultural and English language learner education (MC/ELL). Students read a variety of empirical, autobiographical, and practitional-based texts as they develop their understanding of the complex, multi-layered issues related to MC/ELL education in today’s classrooms. Prerequisite: EDUC 105 or permission of Instructor. Offered annually. (3 sem. hrs.)

EDUC 216. The Inclusive Classroom
This course is a study of students with special needs within the context of schools. Topic include: low and high-incidence disabilities, the special education process, English language learners, collaborative relationships, co-teaching, and creating a positive classroom environment. Field experience required. Prerequisite: EDUC 105 or permission of instructor. Offered annually fall semester. (3 sem. hrs.)

EDUC 219. Teaching for Diversity and Social Justice
Students explore the concept of equity-oriented pedagogy in traditional and non-traditional educational settings; the power of infusing curriculum with issues of social justice at the national and international levels; and how teachers can facilitate positive social change, locally and globally. Offered occasionally. (3 sem. hrs.)

EDUC 225. Technology in the Classroom
This course is designed to provide students with the opportunity to interact with digital tools used in today’s classrooms. The course focuses on integrating technology into the teaching process and using technological tools to communicate classroom information. Prerequisite: EDUC 105 and sophomore standing, or permission of instructor. Offered spring semester. (3 sem. hrs.)

EDUC 226. Building Classroom Community
This course will address the current research and practice related to increasing student motivation and developing positive, inclusive classroom communities. We will explore strategies for making your elementary or secondary classrooms a healthy, effective learning environment. Prerequisite: EDUC 105 and sophomore standing, or permission of instructor. Offered annually during the spring semester. (3 sem. hrs.)

EDUC 275. Using Children’s Literature in the Classroom
In this course students will examine the history, genre, trends, and controversies in children’s literature. Students will acquire the skills needed to critically read a variety of children’s books and to select literature appropriate for diverse educational programs. Prerequisite: EDUC 105 or permission of instructor. Offered occasionally. (3 sem. hrs.)

EDUC 285/385. Topics in Education
Past topics have included: Looking Within: Personal Ethnography in the Classroom, Integrating Technology in the Classroom, and Action Research in a Local School. May be repeated for credit with different topics. Offered as needed. (2-4 sem. hrs.)

EDUC 301. Primary Literacy and Diverse Learners
This course will provide students with the instructional methods necessary to teach reading and writing in grades 1 and 2. Students will gain an understanding of developmentally appropriate instructional strategies and assessment techniques geared to meet the needs of diverse learners. Field experience outside of class time is required. Prerequisite: EDUC 105 and junior standing or permission of instructor. Offered annually spring semester. (3 sem. hrs.)

EDUC 302. Literacy for Diverse Upper Elementary Classrooms
This course will provide students with the instructional methods needed to create and implement an effective literacy program for diverse learners in grades 3-6. Students will gain an understanding of developmentally appropriate instruction strategies and assessment techniques. Field experience outside of class time is required. Prerequisite: EDUC 105 and EDUC 301, or permission of instructor. Co-requisite: EDUC 309. Offered annually during the fall semester. (3 sem. hrs.)

EDUC 304. Inclusive Instruction and Assessment
This course will focus on important skills that lead to being an effective practitioner in student-centered, inclusive classrooms. You will be studying relevant principles of learning and assessment while developing your skills at lesson, curriculum and assessment design. Prerequisites: EDUC 105 and Junior status, or POI. Offered annually fall semester. (3 sem. hrs.)

EDUC 307. Teaching Students with Disabilities
This course will explore instructional planning, assessment and intervention strategies for students with significant disabilities in the general and special education classroom. We will also explore how to support students’ needs and development in context of home and community. Prerequisite: EDUC 304 and EDUC 216, and permission of instructor. Co-requisite: EDUC 308. Offered annually during the spring semester. (3 sem. hrs.).

EDUC 308. Students with Disabilities Practicum
This course must be taken concurrently with EDUC 307 (Teaching Students with Disabilities). Students will spend 40 hours supporting students with disabilities in local general and special education classrooms. Prerequisite: EDUC 216, EDUC 304, or permission of instructor. Co-requisite: EDUC 307. Offered annually during the spring semester. (1 sem. hr)

EDUC 309. Elementary Methods Practicum
Students will spend 40 hours supporting students in local inclusive general education classrooms. Prerequisite: EDUC 301 and EDUC 304, or permission of instructor. Co-requisite: EDUC 302 and EDUC 402. Offered annually during the fall semester. (1 sem. hr)

EDUC 331. Reading and Writing in the Content Areas I
This course will provide students with instructional methods for teaching reading and writing through content in grades 7–12. Field experience outside of class time is required. Prerequisite: EDUC 105 and junior standing or permission of instructor. Offered annually fall semester. (4 sem. hrs.)

EDUC 332. Reading and Writing in the Content Areas II
This course is designed to analyze the instruction and assessment of reading and writing in the content areas for grades 7-12. Field experience outside of class time is required. Prerequisite: EDUC 105 and EDUC 331, or permission of instructor. Offered annually spring semester. (3 sem. hrs.)

EDUC 344. Adolescence Methods Practicum I
This course must be taken concurrently with EDUC 332 (Reading and Writing in the Content Areas II). Students will spend 40 hours in local schools supporting teachers and students. Students will be placed with teachers in their field of certification: English, Spanish, biology, chemistry, physics, mathematics, or history. Graded: S/U. Prerequisite: EDUC 331 and permission of instructor. Co-requisite: EDUC 332. (1 sem. hr)

EDUC 345. Adolescence Methods Practicum II
This course must be taken concurrently with EDUC 406 (Instructional Strategies for Secondary Education). Students will spend 40 hours in local schools supporting teachers and students. Students will be placed with teachers in their field of certification: English, Spanish, biology, chemistry, physics, mathematics, or history.  Graded: S/U. Prerequisite: EDUC 332 and junior standing, or permission of instructor. Co-requisite: EDUC 406. (1 sem. hr)

EDUC 350. Elementary Methods: Teaching Social Studies and Science
This course will prepare students to integrate literacy, social studies, and science instruction in the elementary school classroom. Students will focus on using differentiated literacy strategies to engage elementary school students with high-quality, authentic social studies and science content and concepts. Prerequisite: EDUC 105 and junior standing, or permission of instructor. (4 sem. hrs)

EDUC 395. Tutorial in Education
In-depth study of an area of special interest. Topic determined jointly by a faculty member and student(s) in consultation. Meets weekly for one hour. May be repeated for credit. Offered as needed. (1 sem. hr.)

EDUC 399. Independent Study in Education
Students who wish to pursue research and/or fieldwork in an educational setting may submit plans for doing so to the appropriate faculty member. Prerequisite: permission of instructor and approval. May be repeated for credit. Offered every semester. (1-3 sem. hrs.)

EDUC 402. Elementary Methods: Teaching Mathematics
This course explores instructional methods and assessment strategies within mathematics, grades 1-6. Specific focus is on developing mathematical understanding through differentiation and the formative assessment practices of observing, documenting and reflecting on students’ responses. Prerequisite: EDUC 304 or permission of instructor. Co-requisite: EDUC 309. (3 sem. hrs.)

EDUC 406. Instructional Strategies for Secondary Education
Objectives, methods and materials, content, evaluation, and organization of the several subject matter areas of the secondary school. Students will participate with master teachers to create and implement curricula in their subject matter. Prerequisite: EDUC 105 and junior standing or permission of instructor. Offered annually fall semester. (3 sem. hrs.)

EDUC 408. Student Teaching Reflective Seminar
An accompaniment to student teaching, this seminar provides a forum for reflection and analysis of teaching, and an opportunity to discuss essential aspects of the profession. Faculty provide support for the edTPA process and the development of a culminating portfolio. Taken concurrently with EDUC 410. Prerequisite: EDUC 402 or EDUC 406. Offered every semester. (3 sem. hrs.)

EDUC 410. Student Teaching: Preparation and Analysis
Full-time student teaching in selected elementary and secondary settings; supervision by a public/private school teacher and a representative of the College faculty. (Students are expected to provide their own transportation to student teaching sites.) Prerequisite: EDUC 402 or EDUC 406. Co-requisite: EDUC 408. Offered every semester. (12 sem. hrs.)

See also: Education minors; Adolesence education certification requirements; PSY 210 Childhood Development; PSY 318 Adolescent Development

English

ENGL 104. Introduction to Literature
This course introduces students to reading and analyzing the three main genres of literature: poetry, fiction and drama. Students will develop a rich critical and theoretical vocabulary and hone their argumentative and analytical skills through both in-class discussions and essays. (3 sem. hrs.)

ENGL 204. International Prose
An exploration of important fiction and nonfiction from around the globe in English translation. Special attention will be paid to narrative traditions that transcend national boundaries as well as the interactions between canonical and underrepresented texts and authors. (3 sem. hrs.)

ENGL 206. British Literature 1100-1660
A survey of works in British literature from the Middle Ages through 1660, with a focus on the historical development of literary forms, genres and subjects. Texts will range from Beowulf, to Arthurian romance, to Elizabethan drama, to Paradise Lost. (3 sem. hrs.)

ENGL 215. Survey of American Literature
This course is designed to introduce students to a variety of American literary texts spanning 500+ years, starting with Native American creation myths and ending in the mid-20th century. Reading poems, short stories and essays will orient students to the historical and cultural terrain of American writing, with a focus on both canonical texts and lesser-known works from marginalized voices. (3 sem. hrs.)

ENGL 218. International Drama
An exploration of important plays and dramatic traditions from around the globe in English translation.  Special attention paid to dramatic lineages that transcend national boundaries, such as international existentialism, surrealism and the avant grade, as well as to how dramatic traditions, such as the Japanese Noh, evolve as they spread internationally. (3 sem. hrs.)

ENGL 219. International Poetry
An exploration of important poems and poetic traditions from around the globe in English translation.  Special attention will be paid to poetic lineages that transcend national boundaries, such as international surrealism, and how poetic traditions from one culture, like the haiku, evolve as they spread internationally. (3 sem. hrs.)

ENGL 225. Shakespeare
Approximately eight plays, representative of the range of Shakespeare’s dramatic career. (3 sem. hrs.)

ENGL 245. The Maker’s Craft: Form in Poetry
An exploration of how form contributes to meaning through study of traditional poems, including sonnets, villanelles and dramatic monologues. Students will analyze as well as write poems in various forms. Visiting writers and their works will be featured in classes. (3 sem. hrs.)

ENGL 250. British Literature 1660 to the Modern Era
A survey of works in British literature from the Restoration through the 20th century, with a focus on the historical development of literary forms, genres and subjects. Texts will be drawn from Restoration, 18th-century, Romantic, Victorian and 20th-century authors. (3 sem. hrs.)

ENGL 285/385. Topics in English
In-depth study of a selected topic in English. Past topics have included: American Short Fiction, Advances Shakespeare, and Poetry and Science. May be repeated for credit with different topics. (3-4 sem. hrs.)

ENGL 290. Internship in English
Individually arranged work experience in publishing, journalism, library work and other fields or areas related to bibliography, literature or skills in writing. Prerequisite: one course in English and permission of instructor. Graded: S/U. Offered every semester. (2-4 sem. hrs.) Prerequisite to 300-level courses: any 200-level literature course (English or non-English language) or exemption.

ENGL 301. Reading Translations
Study of the theory and practice of literary translation pursuing the question, “How should we read translations?” Readings include canonical translation theory and English translations of international poetry. Prerequisite: ENGL 104. (3 semester hours)

ENGL 302. The American Novel
Study of the 19th and 20th century novel in a thematic or “issue-oriented” context. Past topics have included: Moby-Dick; Greed! May be repeated for credit with different topics. Prerequisite: ENGL 104. (3 sem. hrs.)

ENGL 304. American Drama
This course provides an introduction to major developments in American theatre, from its inception in the early 1800s to the present. Special emphasis is given to the perspectives of Asian American, African American, Hispanic American, Native American and LGBT-authored play scripts. Prerequisite: sophomore standing or permission of instructor. (3 sem. hrs.)

ENGL 349. American Poetry
Advanced study of the writing of significant American poets and/or movements. Past topics have included Global American Poets, African American Poetry after the Harlem Renaissance, and Berryman in Context. May be repeated for credit with different topics. Prerequisite: ENGL 104 (3 sem. hrs.)

ENGL 362. The British Novel
Study of the development of the British novel from the 18th century to the 21st century. Prerequisite: ENGL 104. (3 sem. hrs.)

ENGL 366. British Poetry
Advanced study of the writing of four to six British poets who are significant figures themselves and also represent the literary periods in which they wrote. Past topics have included: British Victorian Poets. May be repeated for credit with different topics. Prerequisite: ENGL 104. (3 sem. hrs.)

ENGL 367. British Drama
Representative tragedies and comedies from Medieval, Tudor-Stuart, Restoration, and 18th-century dramatists. May be repeated for credit with different topics. Past topics have included: The Erotics of Home (1550-1800). Prerequisite: sophomore standing or permission of instructor. (3 sem. hrs.)

ENGL 380. Writing Literary Criticism: Methods and Theory
A study of literary criticism as a form. Engaging in a series of paper exercises, annotated bibliographies, abstracts and oral presentations, students start to work on a topic of their choice within the first three weeks of the course, prompted by a text of their choice. This course also explores historical and philosophical questions raised (primarily) during the last 50 years about the acts of reading and writing. Theoretical approaches to literature—“literary theory”—will be drawn from the following critical movements: formalism; structuralism and linguistics; psychoanalysis; Marxism; deconstruction; feminism; queer theory; “new” historicism; post-colonialism; and ethnic and cultural studies. To ground our theory, we will read the student’s chosen text through different critical lenses. Especially recommended for students who plan to pursue graduate study in English-related professions. Prerequisite: ENGL 104. (3 sem. hrs.)

ENGL 390. Advanced Internship in English
Individually arranged work experience in publishing, journalism, library work and other fields or areas related to bibliography, literature or skills in writing. Prerequisite: three courses in English, ENGL 290, and permission of instructor. Graded: S/U. Offered every semester. (2-4 sem. hrs.)

ENGL 395. Tutorial in English
In-depth study of an area of special interest. Topic determined jointly by a faculty member and student(s) in consultation. Meets weekly for one hour. May be repeated for credit. Offered as needed. (1 sem. hr.)

ENGL 399. Independent Study in English
Prerequisite: permission of instructor and approval. May be repeated for credit. Offered every semester. (1-3 sem. hrs.)

ENGL 401. Senior Thesis in English
Completion of an extended literary essay by students in the literature concentration, or an extended creative project with a short critical essay by students in the creative writing concentration. Students will work with a faculty advisor and participate in workshops. Open only to students in the English major. (4 sem. hrs.)

English as a Second Language

ESL 255. English as a Second Language I
Open to international students and taken concurrently with ESL 256, this course focuses on campus life and American culture. Classes include oral work to review specific grammar points and vocabulary, readings on American culture and analysis of daily written homework. Prerequisite: interview and permission of instructor. Offered annually in the fall semester. (3 sem. hrs.)

ESL 256. English as a Second Language II
Open to international students and taken concurrently with ESL 255, this course is designed to increase the students’ conversation level beyond rudimentary vocabulary and speech patterns. Class work and exams are mainly oral, focusing on new vocabulary and lengthy explanations. Prerequisite: interview and permission of instructor. Offered annually in the fall semester. (3 sem. hrs.)

ESL 257. English as a Second Language III
Open to international students, ESL III focuses on the types of writing required in academia: expository, persuasive, narrative and descriptive. Students work on writing mechanics, development of good topic sentences and thesis statements, organization, etc., advancing from paragraphs to essays. Prerequisite: permission of instructor. Offered annually in the spring semester. (3 sem. hrs.)

Environmental Science

ENVR 101L. Introduction to Environmental Science
An introduction to the field of environmental science. Includes an analysis of natural resources and the environmental impact of their extraction and use by humans. Environmental quality, pollution and toxicology will be among the topics covered. (4 sem. hrs.)

ENVR 102L. Conservation of Biodiversity
An introduction to the field of conservation science. Local and global aspects of species, ecosystem and landscape conservation will be discussed. (4 sem. hrs.)

ENVR 103. Introduction to Geographic Information System I
This course introduces students to the concepts and components of a geographic information system (GIS). It is designed to provide students with a foundational knowledge in analytical cartography and also expose them to how geographic information can be used to answer questions and to solve problems in natural resource management, environmental assessment, urban planning, business, marketing, real estate, law enforcement and emergency preparedness. This course is the first of a two-course sequence covering GIS technology and applications. Students will learn concepts such as data acquisition, input and manipulation; cartographic output; and report and map generation. Offered every fall semester. (3 sem. hrs.)

ENVR 131L. Physical Geology
The origin, composition, structure, and geological history of the earth. This will include the study of geological processes affecting the earth’s crust and interior, and examination of theories concerning geological phenomena such as origin of mountains and plate tectonics. Meets natural laboratory science distribution requirement. Offered alternate spring semesters. (4 sem. hrs.)

ENVR 196. Tutorial in Geographic Information Systems
A self-guided tutorial in geographic information systems (GIS). The focus is on learning to use ArcGIS software for analysis of geospatial data, map creation and editing. Graded: S/U. (1 sem. hr.)

ENVR 204. The Climate System
From paleoclimate to the current climate crisis, this course overviews climate science, examining both regional and global scales. The interdependent elements of the climate system are examined, and the manner in which humans have perturbed the climate system is discussed. Techniques used to generate the global climate record are reviewed. Prerequisite: one college-level course in any natural science, or permission of instructor. (3 sem. hrs.)

ENVR 285/285L/385/385L. Topics in Environmental Science
In-depth study of a selected topic in environmental science. May be repeated for credit with different topics. Past topics have included Agriculture and the Environment and Pollution Science. Prerequisites will be dependent on the specific topic. Offered as needed. (3−4 sem. hrs.)

ENVR 290/390. Internship in Environmental Science
Work relating to environmental policy or science in an academic, governmental, industrial or public interest group setting. Prerequisite for ENVR 290: ENVR 101L or permission of instructor. Prerequisite for ENVR 390: ENVR 290 or permission of instructor. Graded: S/U. Offered every semester. (2−4 sem. hrs.)

ENVR 303. Environmental Impact Assessment
Examination of the process that determines potential environmental impact of a proposed project. Aims, elements, strengths and limitations of such assessments will be discussed as they apply to various factors.  Discussion of local and international applications of environmental impact assessments.  Offered alternate years. (3 sem. hrs.)

ENVR 340. Sustainable Agriculture
This course will examine the environmental consequences of agriculture as it is practiced today in tropical and temperate regions, and discuss the agroecological basis for tools and techniques designed to address these problems. Prerequisite: ENVR 101L or BIOL 119L or permission of instructor. Offered alternate fall semesters. (3 sem. hrs.)

ENVR 399. Independent Study in Environmental Science
Prerequisite: permission of instructor and approval. May be repeated for credit. Offered every semester. (1−3 sem. hrs.)

ENVR 401. Advanced Research in Environmental Science
Independent research on self-designed project overseen by a faculty member in environmental science. Course provides experience in designing and conducting research and communicating findings. May be repeated for credit. Offered every semester. (1 sem. hr.)

ENVR 403. Senior Thesis in Environmental Science
Identification of an original topic and development of a senior research paper or alternative project in environmental science. Preparation and presentation of a paper or project based on independent research and analysis. Work to be conducted in conjunction with a member of the environmental science faculty. Prerequisite: senior standing in ENVR and permission of instructor. Offered annually in the spring semester.
(4 sem. hrs.)

See also: Environmental Science Major for a list of related courses counting toward the major; Study Abroad with the School for Field Studies

Film and Media Studies

FMS 101. Introduction to Cinema Studies
This course introduces students to the critical, aesthetic and ideological study of cinema. Throughout the semester, we will learn to perform thoughtful analysis of the film form as we explore historical periods, aesthetic movements, genres and technologies and techniques that comprise the history of the moving image on screen. (3 sem. hrs.)

FMS 102. Introduction to Media Studies
This course investigates the function of media systems and their impact on contemporary cultural, social and political thinking. Students will gain proficiency in media literacy through detailed analysis of television, print media, emerging media (online and social media), news and advertising. This course establishes a strong foundation in media studies by exploring the field’s interdisciplinary connections, drawing on journalism, visual arts, theory, aesthetics, economics and theatre. ( (3 sem. hrs.)

FMS 281. Film and Literature
Film art reflects (on), integrates and develops the concerns and strategies of modern literary narratives and movements. This course explores the work of key filmmakers of world cinema in conjunction with the discussion of relevant modernist and postmodernist literary texts. Offered alternate years. (3 sem. hrs.)

See also: Salt Institute for Documentary Studies

First Nations and Indigenous Studies

FNIS 212. Home Lands
This seminar will focus on making a home (on one’s own land or stolen lands?), and the multiple relationships that exist between what sexual minorities call “home” as First Nations people, people in Diaspora, and/or immigrants. (3 sem. hrs.)

FNIS 215. The Haudenosaunee and New York State
This course covers the relationship between the Haudenosaunee (Iroquois) Confederacy and Euro-Americans from earliest contact to the 21st century, with particular attention paid to circa-1970 to the present. (3 sem. hrs.)

FNIS 285/385. Topics in First Nations and Indigenous Studies
Selected topics of interest. May be repeated for credit with different topics. Past topics have included Contemporary Issues of Native America, Federal Policy and Indian Law, The Haudenosaunee and New York State, and Indigenous Thought and Western Science. Offered as needed. (3 sem. hrs.)

Food Systems

FOOD 201. Introduction to Gardening
This course provides students with both classroom and hands-on knowledge about gardening. Topics will vary according to weather and availability of faculty. The spring class will focus on topics suitable for spring weather. These might include seed starting, raised bed construction, plant biology, canning and fermenting foods, visits to local organic farms or farmer’s markets, garden planning, soil composition and preparation for spring planting, composting and water basics, among others. (1 sem. hr.)

FOOD 285/385. Topics in Sustainable Food Systems
Selected topics of interest. May be repeated for credit with different topics. Offered as needed. (3 sem. hrs.)

FOOD 290. Internship in Sustainable Food
Students will gain experience working in a setting that has some connection to food and reflect on issues of sustainability: organic farms, farmer’s markets, food pantries, farm sanctuaries, etc. Cost and arrangements are the student’s responsibility. Offered every semester. Grade: S/U. (2−4 sem. hrs.)

French

FREN courses are taught in French.

FREN 101/102. Introductory French I and II
FREN 101/102. Introductory French I and II
This course introduces students with little or no French background to France and Francophone culture. Using a communicative approach based on oral exercises in class and written homework, students work on the four language skills: comprehension, speaking, reading and writing. Prerequisite for FREN 101: no more than two years of French in high school; prerequisite for FREN 102: FREN 101 or permission of instructor. Offered annually: FREN 101 in fall, FREN 102 in spring. (4 sem. hrs. each)

FREN 123/124. Intermediate French I and II
Designed for students with some background in French, these courses explore the cultural contexts of the French and Francophone world through oral practice and written homework. Students develop proficiency through active participation. Prerequisite: FREN 102 or three years of high school French; those with two years of high school French may take a placement exam to determine enrollment at a higher level. Offered annually: FREN 123 in fall, FREN 124 in spring. (3 sem. hrs. each)

German

GRMN courses are taught in German.

GRMN 101/102. Elementary German I and II
Development of all four communication skills in German: speaking, understanding, reading, and writing. Essentials of grammar, basic vocabulary, practice speaking and writing German. Information on current social and cultural issues of German-speaking countries. Prerequisite for GRMN 101: no more than two years of German in high school; students with two years of German may take a placement exam to determine enrollment at a higher level. Prerequisite for GRMN 102: GRMN 101 or permission of instructor. Offered annually: GRMN 101 in fall, GRMN 102 in spring. (4 sem. hrs. each)

GRMN 123/124. Intermediate German I and II
Designed to further develop a student’s ability to speak, read and write German. Emphasis on communication skills. Grammar review and vocabulary building. Readings of short stories and texts on social and cultural aspects of German-speaking countries. Prerequisite for GRMN 123: GRMN 102 or Level III or IV of high school German, or permission of instructor. Prerequisite for GRMN 124: GRMN 123 or permission of instructor. Offered annually: GRMN 123 in fall, GRMN 124 in spring. (3 sem. hrs. each)

GRMN 199/299/399. Independent Study in German
Prerequisite: permission of instructor and approval. May be repeated for credit. Offered as needed. 
(1−3 sem. hrs.)

See also: The Freie Universität Berlin FU-BEST Program

Health Sciences

HS 100. Introduction to Health Professions
Exploration of skills and knowledge needed for success in the health professions. Conducted within the context of discussion of health care systems and health professions. Prerequisite: first-year or sophomore standing, or permission of instructor. Offered annually every fall semester. (3 sem. hrs.)

HS 109. Community First Aid and Safety
American Red Cross certification, including Community CPR and Standard First Aid. Graded: S/U. Additional fee. Offered every semester. (1 sem. hr.)

HS 195. Tutorial in Health Sciences
A study of selected topics. (1 sem. hr.)

HS 285. Topics in Health and Medical Ethics
This course offers selected topics, such as bioethics, that are of interest to health sciences majors and health & medical ethics minors. Prerequisite: sophomore standing or higher, or permission of instructor. (3 sem. hrs.)

HS 290/390. Internship in Health Sciences
These introductory internships provide opportunities for well-qualified students considering careers in the health sciences. Interns will work with health professionals. Students will give a public presentation of their internship upon return to campus. Prerequisite: two courses in the health sciences major. Grade: S/U. Offered every semester. (2−4 sem. hrs.)

HS 401. Senior Seminar in Health Sciences
This capstone course covers current topics in the health sciences. Students will write and present original research in the area for discussion amongst the class. Post-graduate career opportunities and how to pursue them will also be considered. Prerequisite: senior standing. Offered annually every fall semester. (4 sem. hrs.)

Holistic Health Studies

HHS 100. Introduction to Holistic Health Studies
Overview of holistic health studies as a “learning community” dedicated to personal and planetary well-being and growth. Introduces range of holistic health modalities and certified techniques, such as Bartenieff Fundamentals and the Alexander Technique. Professionally supervised, hands-on work with fellow students. Offered every fall semester. (3 sem. hrs.)

HHS 290/390. Internship in Holistic Health Studies
Individually arranged participation in the work of an institution devoted to holistic health. May be repeated for credit. Graded: S/U. Offered every semester. (2−4 sem. hrs.)

History

HIST 101. Introduction to World Civilizations, Antiquity to 1650
From the ancient Middle East to the age of European overseas exploration, this survey gives particular emphasis to cultural interaction among world civilizations. Special attention is given to the role of geography, technology and ideas as forces of change and continuity. Offered every other year. (3 sem. hrs.)

HIST 103. Introduction to World Civilizations, 1650−Present
From the Portuguese and Spanish voyages of exploration and conquest to space exploration, this survey gives particular emphasis to interaction among world civilizations. Special attention is given to European imperial expansion, technology and main currents of thought. Offered every other year. (3 sem. hrs.)

HIST 201. History of Asia to 1650
This chronological and thematic survey, which highlights major events and figures from South, Central, East, and Southeast Asia from the earliest times to 1650—or what is sometimes referred to as the “ancient,” “medieval,” and “early modern” periods—traces commonality, contact and continuity across this mega-continent. Asia is the home of critical theories on governance such as Confucianism and legalism; major world religions such as Zoroastrianism, Hinduism and Buddhism; cultural creations such as Kabuki theatre, Beijing opera, and countless influential works of fiction; and technological and scientific innovations such as the abacus, gun powder and the compass. (3 sem. hrs.)

HIST 202. Women and Gender in Asia, Earliest Times−Present
Warriors, dowagers, grannies, geishas, sultanas, widows, empresses, assassins, courtesans, poets and scholars. In Asia, just like elsewhere, women were many things, but on this mega-continent, the diversity of experience was amplified. Aceh sultanas sent emissaries to the Ottoman Empire, daughters assassinated Chinese warlords, writers composed genre-defying novels, and mothers educated their children in Confucian classics. This thematic course explores the conditions and experiences of women (and men) in Asian history from earliest times to the present. We will cover such topics as widow-immolation, Orientalism, anarcho-feminism, foot binding, female intimacy, law, abortion and much more. (3 sem. hrs.)

HIST 210. Women and Gender in Europe, 1550−Present
This course surveys both the experiences of women (and men) in European history and various social constructions of gender over time. Using primary documents, historical scholarship, novels, films and memoirs, we examine the legacy of ancient attitudes towards gender and sexuality; the evolving definitions of feminine and masculine; structures of everyday life; misogyny and witchcraft; sexuality and honor; marriage and family; working class and middle class distinctions; feminism and social protest; the impact of war and revolution on gender roles; women’s quest for education; individual and collective struggles to transform society; literature and the arts; and LGBTQ issues of the past and present. Offered alternate years. (3 sem. hrs.)

HIST 212. Introduction to the History of Science
A survey of developments in scientific thought, from antiquity to the early 20th century. Offered alternate years. (3 sem. hrs.)

HIST 213. A History of Modern South Asia
Home to nearly one-quarter of the world’s population, South Asia—which includes the contemporary nation-states of Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, the Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka—is a region of great importance. Its modern history has been shaped by the Himalayas and the monsoons they caused, as well as the Indian Ocean and the trade, wealth and colonizers it invited. In this course we will research famous leaders like the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb and the nationalist leader Mohandas Ghandi, yet we will also examine the subaltern and explore a rich historiographical tradition steeped in postcolonial theory. (3 sem. hrs.).

HIST 215. The Growth of Industrial Society, 1750−Present
Examines social, cultural and economic consequences of modernization, from the Industrial Revolution in England to the contemporary “post-industrial” world. Topics include changing nature of work, new roles for women, workers’ responses to change, and current issues of migration, “guest workers” and a global economy. Offered alternate years. (3 sem. hrs.)

HIST 228. The Making of Modernity, 1815−1914
Focus on European thought, society, events and social movements that dominated the tumultuous 19th Century and helped create and define what we think of as modernity today. Topics include reactions to the French Revolution and industrial revolution; the development of modern political ideologies; the rise of the bourgeoisie and working classes; social protest, reform and revolution; urbanization and urban life; nationalism; social Darwinism and global imperialism; changing attitudes towards women, gender and sexuality; the fascination with the irrational; new notions of leisure and consumption; and the creative thinkers, writers and innovative artists who challenged the status quo. Offered annually. (3 sem. hrs.)

HIST 229. 20th-Century Europe and the World
The social, cultural, economic and political history of Europe, 1900 to the present. Using primary documents, recent historical scholarship, memoirs, documentaries and feature films, we examine the causes and consequences of World War I and II; the Russian Revolution; the Great Depression; the rise of Nazism, Fascism and anti-Semitism; the Holocaust; origins of the Cold War; imperialism and decolonization; the social and cultural revolutions of the post-WWII period; Eastern European communism; the fall of communism and its aftermath; shifting notions of gender over the century; and terrorism and challenges to tolerance in the multicultural Europe of the late 20th century. Offered every other year. (3 sem. hrs.)

HIST 241. Interpreting U.S. History I
An analysis of primary documents and secondary sources to arrive at meaningful interpretations of the nation’s past. Topics include colonial development, slavery and racism, Revolution, the expansion of a market economy, changing gender roles, religion and social reform, immigration, westward expansion and sectional crisis. Offered annually every fall semester. (3 sem. hrs.)

HIST 242. Interpreting U.S. History II
An analysis of primary documents and secondary sources to arrive at meaningful interpretations of the nation’s past. Topics include Reconstruction, industrialization and urbanization, social and political reform, race and ethnicity, changing gender roles, the changing role of government in American life and the emergence of the United States as a global power. Offered annually every spring semester. (3 sem. hrs.)

HIST 245. Civil War and Reconstruction
The Civil War remains the central event in U.S. history. Topics include the origins of the conflict, the impact of “total war,” the war on the home front, and the promises and failures of Reconstruction. Offered every other year. (3 sem. hrs.)

HIST 285/385. Topics in History
In-depth study of a selected topic in history. Past topics have included: Japanese Visual Culture; History of Japan; Introduction to Modern China; History of the Samurai; Islam in Central Asia; Geisha; Culture and Everyday Life in Ancient China; and Cinema and City in East Asia. May be repeated for credit with different topics. Offered as needed. (2−4 sem. hrs.)

HIST 290. Internship in History
Individually arranged participation in work of institutions devoted to historical work and practice. Prerequisite: one course in history and permission of instructor. Graded: S/U. Offered as needed. (2−4 sem. hrs.)

HIST 310. Colonial and Revolutionary America
A critical examination of the American experience from early settlement to the Revolutionary era. Topics include the clash of European, American and African cultures, the evolution of colonial societies, economic development, war and diplomacy, the origins of the Revolution, the War for Independence and the founding of the Republic. Prerequisite: sophomore standing or above. (3 sem. hrs.)

HIST 325. The African-American Experience
A critical historical examination of the African-American experience from enslavement to the modern era. Students will explore the emergence of slavery and race in early America, the evolution of African-American culture, slave life, black abolitionism, emancipation, Reconstruction, migration and urbanization, the freedom struggle during the age of Jim Crow, and the modern civil rights movement. Prerequisite: sophomore standing or above. Offered alternate years. (3 sem. hrs)

HIST 327. The Gilded Age and Progressive Era
A critical examination of the American experience from Reconstruction through World War I. Students will explore industrialization and the changing world of work, popular culture, the rise of the middle class, gender and the “New Woman,” race and immigration, populism and progressive reform, imperial expansion, and the American experience in the “Great War.” Prerequisite: sophomore standing or above. (3 sem. hrs.)

HIST 328. The Early American Republic
A critical examination of the American experience from the founding of the Republic through the War with Mexico. Students will explore the emergence of popular politics and the party system, the capitalist market revolution, religion and the Second Great Awakening, intellectual movements, utopian communities, social reform, slavery and abolitionism, women’s rights and territorial expansion during the age of “Manifest Destiny.” Prerequisite: sophomore standing or above. (3 sem. hrs)

HIST 330. The Enlightenment and the French Revolution
Examines European thought and society from 1685 to 1815, with an emphasis on France. Topics include the legacy of Enlightenment ideas, scientific revolution, social conditions of “the people,” the French Revolution and its debates, the Napoleonic era and early Romanticism. Prerequisite: sophomore standing or above. Offered alternate years. (3 sem. hrs.)

HIST 335. Popular Culture in Early Modern Europe, 1400−1800
This course examines attitudes, beliefs and practices of common people, especially peasants and workers. Topics include daily life, religion and magic, witchcraft, folklore, attitudes toward women and sexuality, the impact of printing, popular rebellions, and relations between “the people” and the elite. Prerequisite: sophomore standing or above. Offered alternate years. (3 sem. hrs.)

HIST 357. Modern America
A critical examination of the American experience from the end of World War I to the present. Topics include industrialization and economic change, the emergence of the modern bureaucratic state, social reform, civil rights, popular culture, war and America’s place in the world. Prerequisite: sophomore standing or above. (3 sem. hrs.)

HIST 360. History of American Feminism
The cultural and philosophical context out of which the feminist movement arose in America. Comparison of the 19th and 20th century feminist movements in America, analyzing the reasons for the failure of the former and the rise of the latter. Prerequisite: sophomore standing or above. Offered annually. (3 sem. hrs.)

HIST 361. Voices of African-American Women
Recovering the history of black women from slavery in the 19th century through the civil rights movement of the 1960s and current feminist activism. Readings will emphasize slave narratives, memoirs, biographies and writings by black women. Prerequisite: sophomore standing or above. (3 sem. hrs.)

HIST 372. Colonial Encounters
The cultural and social consequences of European colonialism from the Age of Exploration to the present—incorporating views of both colonizers and colonized. Issues include racism and slavery, women and sexuality, technology and progress, identity and difference, travel, disease and work. Prerequisite: sophomore standing or above. Offered alternate years. (3 sem. hrs.)

HIST 375. Writing History: Theory and Practice
Explores various ways the past can be approached, analyzed, organized, and written. We ask: how does historical memory function? How should societies remember the past? And who gets to tell those stories? By focusing on specific historical moments, we will consider issues such as perspective, interpretation, narration and the problematic status of facts, evidence and periodization. Students also pursue research topics of their own choosing. Required of history students; also relevant for those pursuing creative writing, museum studies, education and anyone who wants to explore issues of objectivity and subjectivity, and the ways historical knowledge is constructed, organized and displayed. Prerequisite: sophomore standing or above. Offered annually fall semester. (3 sem. hrs.)

HIST 385. The Civilization of Ancient Rome
Through close readings of primary sources, this course examines the multifaceted civilization of ancient Rome. The survey begins with the Etruscan influences on the monarchy of early Rome and continues to the rise of the Roman Republic; the expansion of Roman control beyond the Italian peninsula; the rise of Imperial Rome; and closes with western Rome’s fall in the fifth century to Germanic civilizations. The course focuses on the historical, social, cultural and military features of Rome, with particular attention to daily life in the ancient Roman cities and provinces, women’s lives and contributions, as well as religious and artistic expressions of Roman paganism and early Christianity. (3 sem. hrs.)

HIST 390. Advanced Internship in History
Individually arranged participation in work of institutions devoted to historical work and practice. Students will develop at a more advanced level the skills and techniques demanded from a previous history internship. Prerequisite: HIST 290 and permission of instructor. Graded: S/U. Offered as needed. (2−3 sem. hrs.)

HIST 395. Tutorial in History
In-depth study of an area of special interest. Topic determined jointly by a faculty member and student(s) in consultation. Meets weekly for one hour. May be repeated for credit. Offered as needed. (1 sem. hr.)

HIST 399. Independent Study in History
Prerequisite: permission of instructor and approval. May be repeated for credit. Offered every semester. 
(1−3 sem. hrs.)

HIST 401. Senior Essay in History
Preparation of an essay based on individual research. Prerequisite: senior history major. Offered annually in the fall semester. (3 sem. hrs.)

HIST 402. Senior Seminar in History
A collaborative seminar for students writing their senior essays. Seniors will meet regularly to discuss research methods and problems, participate in peer editing of drafts and give presentations of their work. Prerequisite: senior history major. Offered annually in the fall semester. (1 sem. hr.)

See also: DANC 316. Dance History; OCS 275. Women and Public Policy Seminar; THEA 315. Theatre History

Humanities

HUM courses are taught in English.

HUM 230. Decolonization and Post-Colonial Worlds
Using a variety of sources such as travel accounts, novels and films, students will place themselves in past colonial worlds and witness the processes and dynamics of decolonization as they occurred in various places around the globe. (3 sem. hrs.)

HUM 285/385. Topics in Humanities
In-depth study of a selected topic in languages, literatures and cultures. May be repeated for credit with different topics. Past topics have included Berlin and Barcelona: Sister Cities; African Post-Colonial Literature; and Writers of the Caribbean. (2−4 sem. hrs.)

HUM 305. Post-Colonial African Literature
This course will discuss how colonial heritage plays out in the works of major post-colonial African writers. African historical and cultural issues will be presented as a background for the study of literary works by representative post-independence major authors. We will approach these texts through close readings while focusing on the cultural context and theoretical questions of post-colonial discourse. Fictional texts will be studied both as a product of society and as a picture of a specific universe considered in a historical, political and sociological context. Offered alternate years. (3 sem. hrs.)

HUM 360. Latin American Literature, Revolution and History
A cross-cultural and multidisciplinary approach to the study of the forces affecting sociopolitical and aesthetic changes in 19th-century European and Latin American countries. The concepts of independence, revolution and class are studied in the works of Martí, Fuentes, Castellanos, García Márquez, Allende and Valenzuela. Prerequisite: permission of instructor. Offered alternate years. (3 sem. hrs.)

HUM 378. Women and Literature in Latin America
Using feminist perspectives, this course examines the multiple factors influencing the representation of women in Latin American literature. Authors include Bombal, Mistral Allende, Ferré, de Burgos and Lispector. Topics include political realism and literary surrealism, language and feminist writing. Prerequisite: permission of instructor. Offered occasionally. (3 sem. hrs.)

HUM 386. Hispanic-U.S. Experience in Literature and the Arts
Examines the rich, diverse response of Spanish-speaking peoples in the U.S. to issues of language, gender, identity and acculturation, through works of literature, the media and the arts. Includes textbooks, plays and more. Offered occasionally. (3 sem. hrs.)

Interdisciplinary Studies

ID 123. Oral History: Tell Me Your Story
Students will engage in the pursuit of knowledge by learning how to conduct an oral history interview. The experience with the primary sources will emphasize the importance of creating and sharing meaningful lives from any perspective. (3 sem. hrs.)

ID 290/390. Interdisciplinary Internship
Individually-arranged internships in a community or workplace in which students apply and practice the ideals of the liberal arts beyond a single academic discipline. Required reflective assessment activities vary by experience and sponsor. Offered every semester, plus January and summer. (2−4 sem. hrs.)

International Studies

INTL 151. Introduction to International Studies
Introduction to concepts and tools for the analysis of international and global issues. Course develops understanding of sociocultural, political and economic differences and similarities. Topics include world areas and ecosystems, social-cultural differences, cultural identity, values and international/intercultural relations. Offered annually in the fall semester. (3 sem. hrs.)

INTL 160. Introduction to Africana Studies
The course will focus on the debates on black studies and the perception of Africa among black people in the Diaspora. Offered alternate years. (3 sem. hrs.)

INTL 350. Comparative Environmental Policy Analysis
Comparative analysis of contemporary governmental environmental policies, using quantitative and qualitative data. Within cost-benefit analysis typologies, the course deals with implication of such policies within the framework of conservative, protectionist, and progressive political arguments. Case studies from industrialized and less industrialized countries. Prerequisite: INTL 151, POLS 155, or ECON 209. Offered alternate years. (3 sem. hrs.)

INTL 385. Topics in International Studies
In-depth study of selected topics in international studies. Prerequisite: INTL 151 or POLS 155 or permission of instructor. May be repeated for credit with different topics. Past topics have included: Violence and Refugee Problems; China: The Global Political Economy; and International Relations. Planned future topics include: Environment as a Social and Political Movement pre/post Cold War. Offered as needed. (2−4 sem. hrs.)

INTL 399. Independent Study in International Studies
Prerequisite: permission of instructor and approval. May be repeated for credit. Offered as needed. (1−3 sem. hrs.)

INTL 402. Senior Seminar in International Studies
Research and analysis of an international issue with a focus on specific world areas and a multidisciplinary approach. The outcome will be a senior thesis. Prerequisite: senior standing. Offered annually in the spring semester. (4 sem. hrs.)

See also: International Studies major for a list of related courses counting toward the major; Courses taught in French; Courses taught in German; Courses taught in Spanish

Italian

ITAL courses are taught in Italian.

ITAL 101/102. Elementary Italian I and II
Intensive audio-lingual training, inductive grammar study, and practice in reading and writing. Four meetings per week and language laboratory drills, films and slides. Prerequisite for ITAL 101: no more than two years of Italian in high school; those with two years of high school Italian may take a placement exam to determine registration at a higher level. Prerequisite for ITAL 102: ITAL 101 or permission of instructor. Offered annually: ITAL 101 in fall, ITAL 102 in spring. (4 sem. hrs. each)

ITAL 123/124. Intermediate Italian I and II
Review and expansion of grammar. Designed to increase students’ ability to understand, speak, read and write Italian, and to acquaint them with significant aspects of Italian culture. The second semester emphasizes reading and writing through the use of videos, slides and tapes. Prerequisite for ITAL 123: ITAL 102 or Level III or IV of high school Italian, or permission of instructor. Prerequisite for ITAL 124: ITAL 123 or permission of instructor. Offered occasionally. (3 sem. hrs. each)

ITAL 195/295. Tutorial in Italian
Aspects of Italian culture: a study of selected topics. Readings and discussion in Italian. Prerequisite: permission of instructor. Offered occasionally. (1 sem. hr.)

ITAL 399. Independent Study in Italian
Prerequisite: permission of instructor and approval. May be repeated for credit. Offered occasionally. (1−3 sem. hrs.)

See also: Wells in Florence program

Japanese

JPN courses are taught in Japanese.

JPN 101/102. Elementary Japanese I and II
Development of all four basic communication skills: speaking, listening, reading and writing. Intensive oral and written practice in class. Students will also be introduced to Japanese culture and society. Prerequisite for JPN 101: no more than two years of Japanese in high school; those with two years of high school Japanese may take a placement test to determine enrollment at a higher level. Prerequisite for JPN 102: JPN 101 or permission of instructor. Offered annually: JPN 101 in fall and JPN 102 in spring. (4 sem. hrs. each)

JPN 123/124. Intermediate Japanese I and II
Designed to improve students’ ability to understand, speak, read and write Japanese, while also learning about social and cultural aspects of Japanese society. Second semester will emphasize more reading and writing. Prerequisite for JPN 123: JPN 102 or permission of instructor. Prerequisite for JPN 124: JPN 123 or permission of instructor. Offered annually: JPN 123 in fall and JPN 124 in spring. (3 sem. hrs. each)

JPN 195. Tutorial in Japanese
Designed to increase students’ ability to express thoughts in sustained conversation and to approximate native speech and pronunciation. May be repeated for credit. Prerequisite: JPN 101/102 and permission of instructor. Offered every semester. (1 sem. hr.)

See also: Doshisha Women’s College of Liberal Arts

Journalism

JOUR 101. Writing to Be Read
Students will develop audience awareness and hone writing skills through four short journalism assignments (personal narrative, argumentative essay, film review and op-ed). Special emphasis will be placed on how to determine credibility of facts, incorporate source material and write for an online readership. (3 sem. hrs.)

JOUR 290/390. Internship in Journalism
Individually arranged participation in the work of an institution devoted to journalism. May be repeated for credit. Graded: S/U. Offered every semester. (2−4 sem. hrs.)

Mathematical and Physical Sciences

MPS 295. Tutorial: Fourier Methods
The course is an introduction to the mathematics of Fourier analysis, with application to physical systems. Topics to be covered include Fourier sine/cosine series; complex Fourier series; completeness and orthogonality; the Fourier transform; convolutions; and applications. Prerequisites: MATH 112 required; familiarity with complex variable analysis is preferred. (1 sem. hr.)

MPS 402. Senior Seminar in Mathematical and Physical Sciences I
The student will select a project that integrates and expands on material from earlier courses. Meets two hours a week. Prerequisite: senior MPS major in good standing or permission of instructor. Offered in the fall semester. (3 sem. hrs.)

See also: Computer science courses; Mathematics courses; Physics courses

Mathematics

Several mathematics courses are recommended particularly to students concentrating in the social sciences or the natural sciences. The calculus sequence is a valuable adjunct to all such fields. The statistical courses, MATH 251 Mathematical Statistics, MATH 300 Probability Theory, and the computer-oriented courses, as well as MATH 212 Linear Algebra and MATH 213 Ordinary Differential Equations, also are of considerable use to the students in these fields. For students unable to devote as much time to mathematics, courses MATH 105 Contemporary Mathematics, MATH 109 Precalculus, and MATH 151 Elementary Statistics furnish more limited mathematical ideas and tools that also are of great use in the social sciences and the other natural sciences.

MATH 105. Contemporary Mathematics
An introduction to some essential ideas, methods and applications of mathematics. Topics include logic and deduction, problem solving, and numbers and numeracy. Tilings and symmetry, voting systems and game theory will be covered as time permits. Prerequisite: permission of instructor. Offered at least annually. (3 sem. hrs.)

MATH 109. Precalculus
An introduction to the algebra of sets and functions emphasizing polynomials, exponential, logarithmic and trigonometric functions. Applications to business, economics and biology. Can serve as preparation for calculus. Prerequisite: three years of high school mathematics, including two of algebra, and permission of instructor. Offered annually in the fall semester. (3 sem. hrs.)

MATH 111. Calculus I: Introduction to Calculus
Properties and graphs of algebraic and transcendental functions. Conceptual and analytical introduction to limits, continuity and derivatives, with applications. Prerequisite: MATH 109 or four years of secondary school mathematics, or permission of instructor. Offered every semester. (4 sem. hrs.)

MATH 112. Calculus II: Introduction to Calculus
Continuation of MATH 111. The fundamental theorem of calculus, methods of integration, and applications. Introduction to differential equations, partial derivatives, vectors and vector functions. Prerequisite: MATH 111. Offered every semester. (4 sem. hrs.)

MATH 151. Elementary Statistics
Fundamental techniques of applied statistics, descriptive statistics and data analysis, probability, population parameters, hypothesis testing, regression and correlation. Prerequisite: three years of high school mathematics. This course is designed for students with at least 3 years of high school mathematics. Students who have received credit for MATH 251 may not enroll in MATH 151. Offered every semester. (3 sem. hrs.)

MATH 195. Tutorial in Trigonometry
Self-paced study of trigonometry topics, either as review or as an introduction. May be used as preparation for calculus or may be taken concurrently. Graded: S/U. Offered every semester. (1 sem. hr)

MATH 211. Calculus III: Multivariable Calculus
Continuation of MATH 112. Infinite sequences and series. Vector functions, functions of several variables and applications. Multiple integrals and vector analysis. Prerequisite: MATH 112. Offered annually in the fall semester. (3 sem. hrs.)

MATH 212. Linear Algebra
Matrices, vector spaces, linear transformations, determinants and eigenvalues, with applications. Prerequisite: MATH 112. Offered annually in the spring semester. (3 sem. hrs.)

MATH 213. Ordinary Differential Equations and Applications
Basic theory of differential equations with applications to continuous models. Focus on analytic methods with introduction to numerical methods. Introduction to computer tools in determining symbolic and numerical solutions. Prerequisite: MATH 112. Offered annually in the spring semester. (3 sem. hrs.)

MATH 251. Mathematical Statistics
Descriptive and exploratory data analysis, one variable and two. Designing experiments and sampling. Examples of probability distributions, random variables, means and standard deviations. Central Limit Theorem. Correlation and regression. Confidence intervals and hypothesis testing. Other topics as time allows. Prerequisite: MATH 111 or permission of instructor. Offered in alternate years. (3 sem. hrs.)

MATH 267. Discrete Mathematics
An introduction to the foundations of mathematics and computer science through the study of discrete structures. Topics include logic, methods of proof, set theory, functions, relations, number systems and algorithms. Prerequisite: one mathematics course or CS 131 or permission of instructor. Offered annually in the fall semester. (3 sem. hrs.)

MATH 290. Internship in Mathematics
Individually arranged participation in the work of a computer laboratory, statistical office or industrial research office. The student must submit a report or paper on an appropriate topic approved by the instructor. Prerequisite: background in mathematics appropriate to the project, and permission of instructor. Graded: S/U. Offered as needed. (2−4 sem. hrs.)

MATH 300. Probability Theory
Densities and cumulative distributions of discrete and continuous random variables. Mathematical expectation, independence. Sums of random variables, analysis of Central Limit Theorem. Multivariate distributions. Application of mathematical probability tools in statistical estimation and testing concepts such as power, error types, regression, and maximum likelihood principle. Prerequisite: MATH 112 or permission of instructor. Offered every other year. (3 sem. hrs.)

MATH 301. Applied and Computational Mathematics
This course will emphasize the mathematical formulation of “real-world” problems along with common computational techniques used for their solution. Numerical methods and computer use will be emphasized. Prerequisite: MATH 112, PHYS 111L, and a 200-level MPS course, or permission of instructor. Offered every other year. (3 sem. hrs.)

MATH 305. Operations Research
Theory and application of representative methods in operations research including linear programming, network analysis, dynamic programming, game theory and queuing theory. Prerequisite: MATH 212 or permission of instructor. Offered in alternate years. (3 sem. hrs.)

MATH 312. Real Analysis
Topological aspects of the real line, sequences and series of numbers, convergence, power series, properties of continuous functions, derivatives and their properties, Riemann integration, and the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. Prerequisite: MATH 267 or permission of instructor. Offered every other year. 
(3 sem. hrs.)

MATH 313. Abstract Algebra
Properties and examples of groups, rings and fields. Emphasis on common categorical notions such as homomorphisms, quotients and isomorphism theorems. Prerequisite: MATH 267 or permission of instructor. Offered alternate years. (3 sem. hrs.)

MATH 385. Topics in Mathematics
In-depth study of a selected topic in mathematics. Past topics have included: History of Mathematics. Possible future topics include: Topology, Complex Analysis, and Number Theory. May be repeated for credit with different topics. Offered as needed. (2−4 sem. hrs.)

MATH 390. Internship in Mathematics
Individually arranged participation in the work of a computer laboratory, statistical office or industrial research office designed primarily for more advanced students. May be repeated for credit. Prerequisite: MATH 290 or permission of instructor. Graded: S/U. Fee will be variable, living expenses at site. Offered as needed. (2−4 sem. hrs.)

MATH 395. Tutorial in Mathematics
In-depth study of an area of special interest. Topic determined jointly by a faculty member and student(s) in consultation. Meets weekly for one hour. May be repeated for credit. Offered as needed. (1 sem. hr.)

MATH 399. Independent Study in Mathematics
Prerequisite: permission of instructor and approval. May be repeated for credit. Offered every semester. (1−3 sem. hrs.)

See also: HIST 212. Introduction to the History of Science; Computer Science Courses

Museum Studies

MSEU 100. Introduction to Museum Studies
An introduction to the theories and practices of museum governance and exhibition design. Students will learn approaches pertaining to museum work appropriate to a variety of audiences, including science, anthropology, history and art. Offered every fall semester. (3 sem. hrs.)

MSEU 290/390. Internship in Museum Studies
Individually arranged participation in the work of an institution devoted to museum studies. May be repeated for credit. Graded: S/U. Offered every semester. (2−4 sem. hrs.)

Music

MUS 108. Musical Theatre in American Society
The evolution of musical theatre from the 19th century to the present day, and how society affected or was affected by this evolution. A survey of the best musicals in chronological order, including units on World War II, ethnic and “Great Books” musicals. (3 sem. hrs.)

MUS 112. Listening: A Survey of Western Music
A survey of Western classical musical styles in historical perspective including compositions by Bach, Mozart, Beethoven and Stravinsky. (3 sem. hrs.)

MUS 121. Beginning Class Guitar
Group instruction on acoustic guitar for beginning students. Graded: S/U. May be repeated. Offered each semester. (1 sem. hr.)

MUS 141. Beginning Class Piano
Class lessons at the beginning level using the electronic keyboard lab. Students will learn basic symbols, terms and rhythms, and to play simple solo and ensemble pieces. Graded: S/U. May be repeated. Offered annually in the fall semester. (1 sem. hr.)

MUS 145. Introduction to Music Theory
The course is designed to teach students with little or no formal music training the elements of music theory. These elements include reading and writing music notation, learning to use the piano keyboard, identifying intervals, learning the structure of major and minor scales, identifying and building chords, analyzing chordal harmonies, understanding melodic structure and harmonizing melodies. This course furthers students’ understanding of musical principles and practices that have been used in Western music from the 17th century through the 20th century. (3 sem. hrs.)

MUS 150. Concert Choir
This performance-based course is open by audition. Members prepare for a culminating performance of appropriate choral music for a live audience at the end of each semester. Students may sing without registering for credit if desired. Prerequisite: audition. Graded: S/U. May be repeated for credit. Offered every semester. (2 sem. hrs.)

MUS 210. World Music
An introduction to the great diversity of traditional musics worldwide, including units selected from Africa, Asia (China, Japan, Indonesia), the Indian subcontinent, Latin America and Native American music; some consideration of theatre and dance as well. Includes recorded music, videos and guest presentations. (3 sem. hrs.)

MUS 220. Wells College Jazz Band
Students learn to perform the standard jazz repertoire on their instrument of expertise. They also learn improvisation technique. Prerequisite: audition or permission of instructor. Graded: S/U. May be repeated for credit. Offered every semester. (0.5 sem. hr.)

MUS 242. Music Theory I
A study of the language of music and its construction. Includes part writing in four-part vocal style and analysis of Western music and harmony with some composition. Electronic keyboard lab is used for practice and assignments. Prerequisite: MUS 145 or permission of instructor. (3 sem. hrs.)

MUS 253. Chamber Orchestra
Instrumental musicians rehearse and perform orchestral works from the Renaissance period to the present. Two weekly rehearsals and at least one performance on campus each semester. Prerequisite: permission of instructor and musical and technical proficiency to match other members of the orchestra. May be repeated for credit. Graded: S/U. Offered every semester. (1 sem. hr.)

Off-Campus Study

OCS 110. January at the Art Students League—New York City
Thorough instruction in drawing, painting, sculpture, graphics, and illustration. The Art Students League is the oldest—and one of the most respected—art schools in the United States. Classes Monday−Friday. Afternoon visits to galleries, museums and artist studios. Graded: S/U. May be repeated for credit. Offered in January. (3 sem. hrs.)

OCS 215. London Theatre
Offerings in London theatre. Attendance at approximately 10 to 15 performances will sample the range of venues, types of drama and styles of production from the Royal Shakespeare Theatre and National Theatre and fringe and pub companies; reading of selected plays, discussion and written reviews of performances. Prerequisite: permission of instructor. Offered every other year. (3 sem. hrs.)

OCS 271. Cross-Cultural Preparation
Topics include culture, cultural differences, culture shock, cross-cultural conflict, safety while abroad and re- entry shock. Offered during the B-session of the semester before going abroad. Required for study abroad. Graded: S/U. Offered every semester. (0.5 sem. hr.)

OCS 272. Cross-Cultural Reflection
Required during and after studying abroad, this course addresses and reflects on and discusses concepts introduced in OCS 271. Classroom application of new perspectives learned abroad will be one of the topics discussed. Graded: S/U. Offered every semester. (0.5 sem. hr.)

OCS 275. Women and Public Policy Seminar
Weeklong seminar with women leaders in public service. Formal and informal sessions include policy issues and political institutions, including the Supreme Court, think tanks, Congress, the Executive Branch and nongovernmental organizations—all from women’s perspectives. Graded: S/U. May be repeated once. Offered every January. (1 sem. hr.)

OCS 280. Women and Science/Technology Policy Seminar
Weeklong seminar with women leaders working in the fields of science and technology, held in Washington, D.C. Speakers are drawn from a variety of agencies and organizations. Graded S/U. May be repeated once. Offered every January. (1 sem. hr.)

OCS 285. Topics in Experiential Learning
Weeklong experiential learning in a variety of settings, including community service, with opportunities to apply and test studies in the liberal arts. Past offerings have included: American Genealogical Resources; Navajo Nation Experience; Environmental Restoration and Protection in the Florida Everglades; and Southern Adventures of Fanny Kemble. Graded: S/U. Offered as needed. (1−3 sem. hrs.)

OCS 300. The Anthropological Experience in Hawaii
This course will involve two to three weeks of experiential learning and field work in the islands of Hawaii. Students will explore issues such as Native Hawaiian culture and history, cultural resource management, environmental preservation, agricultural development of sugar cane and coffee, archaeology, multiculturalism and the impact of tourism. Prerequisite: ANTH 250 and permission of instructor. Offered every other year. (3 sem. hrs.)

OCS 305. The Anthropological Experience in Belize
This is a two-week intensive course in the multicultural nation of Belize doing field work among Garifuna, Maya, Creole and American ex-patriots. Issues covered include land rights, education, cultural survival, tourism, archaeology and preservation of natural resources. Experiential learning opportunities are available. Prerequisite: permission of instructor. Offered occasionally. (3 sem. hrs.)

See also: Affiliated programs for semester-long off-campus study

Philosophy

PHIL 100. Philosophy
Philosophy is an ongoing and open-ended conversation about basic questions of human existence. This course introduces students to the conversation through the works of major philosophers. Offered annually. (3 sem. hrs.)

PHIL 114. Logic and Critical Thinking
Introduction to the art of sound reasoning. Emphasis is placed on informal logic and practical applications, although some formal proofs are also considered. Offered at least annually. (3 sem. hrs.)

PHIL 120. Creativity and the Irrational
This course explores and promotes creativity from philosophical, psychological, and artistic perspectives. We also consider various kinds of irrationality, and the relationship (if any) between the irrational (or simply non-rational) and innovation and creativity. Students will also be introduced to famous thought experiments from the history of philosophy, and the concepts of “flow” and automatic writing from psychology. The course concludes with discussion of the daily rituals of some famously artistic and creative people. (3 sem. hrs.)

PHIL 230. Ancient Philosophy
This course introduces students to major philosophers of the ancient world. Greek and Roman philosophy, as well as Eastern philosophies, will be discussed. Offered every other year. (3 sem. hrs.)

PHIL 235. Modern and Post-Modern Philosophy
A study of philosophy from the 17th to the 20th century. Focus on major philosophers such as Descartes, Pascal, Kant, Hegel, Mill, Derrida and Foucault. Offered alternate years. (3 sem. hrs.)

PHIL 240. Ethics, Equality and Justice
This course will introduce philosophical theories of ethics, then focus on major issues of equality and justice in view of these theories. Offered at least annually. (3 sem. hrs.)

PHIL 245. Meaning
This course focuses on philosophical perspectives on the human quest for meaning. We will discuss existentialist themes in philosophy, film, literature, and psychoanalytic theory. Prerequisite: PHIL 100 or permission of instructor. Offered annually. (3 sem. hrs.)

PHIL 251. Philosophy, Film and Popular Culture
This course examines philosophy through film, television and other aspects of popular culture, including comic books. We also discuss philosophical perspectives on film, television and popular culture. A basic theme of the course is the human condition, as it is expressed in wildly diverse ways. (3 sem. hrs.)

PHIL 285/385. Topics in Philosophy
In-depth study of a selected topic in philosophy. For example, a topic in ethics such as the family, abortion or war, or a topic on human nature or religion, such as philosophy of mind, Buddhist philosophy, or existentialism. Prerequisite: PHIL 240 (for ethics topics) or permission of instructor. May be repeated for credit with different topics. Offered occasionally. (2−4 sem. hrs.)

PHIL 300. Philosophy of Religion
This courses focuses on main issues in the philosophy of religion, such as the existence of God, the problem of evil, the nature of faith, and the evolutionary origins of “supernatural” beliefs. We will also consider the social and communal aspects of religious commitment and major differences in religious expression across cultures and time periods. Offered every other year. (3 sem. hrs.)

PHIL 325. Belief and Knowledge
This course explores philosophical perspectives on belief and knowledge. Sociological, psychoanalytic and historical perspectives also will be considered. Some topics to be examined include the ethics of belief, the meaning and significance of skepticism, theories of knowledge, the social construction of reality and faith versus reason. Prerequisite: one PHIL course or permission of instructor. Offered alternate years. (3 sem. hrs.)

PHIL 329. Philosophy of Art
This course focuses on the philosophy of art and beauty. We will discussion questions such as: what is art? What is beauty? Can something cruel or immoral still be beautiful? A work of art? In other respects, the course also focuses on issues such as censorship, who owns art, and violence in art. Offered occasionally. (3 sem. hrs.)

PHIL 331. Mind
What is it to have a mind? What is the mind’s relation to the brain? Do we ever have free will? In this course, we consider multiple perspectives on these questions and others in the philosophy of mind. Prerequisite: PHIL 100 or permission of instructor. Offered annually. (3 sem. hrs.)

PHIL 340. Ethics and the Environment
This course focuses on the unique and pressing ethical issues that are related to human ecology and the environment. We consider, in a careful and sustained way, what moral obligations we have to each other, other animals, and the broader world, in view of modern institutions, values and our unprecedented technology, which can radically alter entire ecosystems. (3 sem. hrs.)

PHIL 385. Topics in Philosophy
Past topics have included: “What Is Philosophy?” Offered as needed. (3 sem. hrs.)

PHIL 395. Tutorial in Philosophy
Opportunities are offered for advanced tutorial study in subjects of special interest to individual students or small groups of students. The number of such courses offered in any single semester must be restricted. Examples of the range and variety of such offerings are individual philosophers, schools of philosophy and philosophical issues. Prerequisite: permission of instructor. May be repeated for credit. Offered as needed. (1 sem. hr.)

PHIL 399. Independent Study in Philosophy
Prerequisite: permission of instructor and approval. May be repeated for credit. Offered as needed. (1−3 sem. hrs.)

PHIL 402. Research and Thesis in Philosophy
Preparation of a thesis based on individual research. Prerequisite: senior PHIL major. Offered annually spring semester. (3 sem. hrs.)

Physical Education

PE 105. Meditation for Stress Reduction and Relaxation
This introductory level class will explore various forms of meditation for stress reduction and relaxation including seated meditation, walking meditation, and mindfulness-based meditation. Simple yoga postures and breathing techniques will be included as appropriate to class needs. Graded: S/U. May be repeated for credit. Offered every semester. (0.5 sem. hr)

PE 110. Beginning Swimming
Course designed primarily for those students who do not pass the Wells swimming test. Emphasis on basic stroke technique. Graded: S/U. Offered every semester. (0.5 sem. hr)

PE 115. Aerobic Kickboxing
This course will explore aerobic kickboxing and fitness training using “Seven-Minute Internal-Fire Functional Fitness©” routines. In each session new aerobic and kickboxing sequences will be presented and practiced working up a great sweat and stoking your metabolic furnace with a routine that is not only a great workout but customizable to your personal goals. Graded: S/U. May be repeated for credit. Additional fee. Offered every semester. (0.5 sem. hr)

PE 118. Beginning Sailing
Emphasis will be on understanding how to use the wind to sail a boat in a set direction. In addition, how to rig a Sunfish sailboat, take care of equipment in and out of the water, and water safety will be taught. The many different ways a sailboat can be used for personal enjoyment will also be presented. Graded: S/U. May be repeated for credit. Offered annually fall semester. (0.5 sem. hr)

PE 119. Canoeing and Kayaking
Emphasis will be on learning basic strokes used to control and power these boats. Also, care of equipment, both in and out of the water and water safety will be taught. How these boats are used for personal enjoyment in many different ways will also be presented. Graded: S/U. May be repeated for credit. Offered annually fall semester. (0.5 sem. hr)

PE 121. Water Aerobics
Low-impact exercises designed to tone your body, increase strength and flexibility, and improve your cardiovascular endurance. Graded: S/U. May be repeated for credit. Offered annually. (0.5 sem. hr)

PE 123. Yoga
Yoga is a dynamic system of balance that leads to a healthy mind and body. The course contains various techniques of concentration, proper breathing, posture, cleansing and relaxation. Topics covered encourage knowledge of simple hygiene and nutrition. Graded: S/U. May be repeated for credit. Offered every semester. (0.5 sem. hr)

PE 124. Toning
Exercises designed to increase strength and flexibility of the various body parts. Challenging. Low impact. Graded: S/U. May be repeated for credit. Offered every semester. (0.5 sem. hr)

PE 125. Exercise and Weight Training
Introduction to weight training and exercise principles. Instruction in proper technique and maintenance of a weight training program utilizing the Universal unit. Graded: S/U. May be repeated for credit. Offered every semester. (0.5 sem. hr)

PE 129. Beginning Horseback Riding
This course explores the sport of horseback riding mounted and un-mounted. Beginner students will learn to control a horse at a walk and trot. Experienced students can explore pattern work and transition in either hunt seat or saddle seat disciplines. Additional fee. Graded: S/U. May be repeated for credit. Offered every semester. (0.5 sem. hr)

PE 130. Beginning Tennis
Emphasis placed on skill acquisition of the basic strokes: forehand, backhand, serve, and volley. Introduce rules and scoring. Graded: S/U. May be repeated for credit. Offered every semester. (0.5 sem. hr)

PE 135. Golf
Instruction in basic techniques from beginning through more advanced levels of play. Opportunity for videotaping and course play. Graded: S/U. May be repeated for credit. Offered every semester. (0.5 sem. hr)

PE 175. Scuba Diving
This course prepares the student for safe and enjoyable participation in recreational scuba diving. Successful completion of classroom, pool and open water dives results in lifetime international certification. All scuba equipment furnished. Additional fees.. Graded: S/U. Offered every semester. (1 sem. hr)

PE 180. Self-Defense
This course presents basic techniques against a weaponless attacker. Self-defense techniques and escapes against grabs, chokes, punches, and kicks are emphasized along with physical skills to avoid injury, strategies applying the psychology of victim/attacker, and tactics to create effective defense. Graded: S/U. May be repeated for credit. Offered every semester. (0.5 sem. hr)

PE 185. Beginning Shorin-ryu Karate
This course will introduce students to the basic movement skills and concepts of Shorin-ryu karate. Students will learn elementary hand and foot techniques that will be applied in prearranged movement exercises and beginning-level sparring. Graded: S/U. May be repeated for credit. Offered every semester. (0.5 sem. hr)

PE 190. Nutrition and Women’s Health
Through lecture/discussion, independent research, and personal introspection, students will identify personal nutrition and wellness issues and learn to discriminate between external sources of nutritional information and their own internal nutritional wisdom. Topics include diets and weight loss, body image, and the role of diet in chronic diseases relevant to women’s health, including osteoporosis, breast cancer, and eating disorders. Graded: S/U. Offered occasionally. Does not meet PE activity requirement. (1 sem. hr)

PE 199. Independent Study in Physical Education
With approval and under special extenuating circumstances, a student may elect an independent course of study for seven weeks in the area of her or his choice. Minimum requirements include seven weeks of activity, five times weekly, for a minimum duration of 30 minutes. A journal is to be submitted upon course completion. Graded: S/U. May be repeated for credit. Offered every semester. (0.5 sem. hr)

PE 223. Intensive Yoga
Yoga is a dynamic system of balance that has received scientific documentation for leading to a healthy mind and body, and also having enabled students to combine natural law with practical sense of well-being. The course contains various techniques of concentration, proper breathing, posture, cleansing and relaxation. Topics covered encourage knowledge of simple hygienic and nutritional hints. Graded: S/U. May be repeated for credit. Offered every semester. (0.5 sem. hr)

PE 290/390. Internship in Physical Education
Individually arranged participation in activities related to physical education and athletics, at institutions such as YM-YWCAs, high schools, health clubs, or similar sports facilities. Prerequisite: permission of instructor. Graded: S/U. May be repeated for credit. Offered as needed. (2−4 sem. hrs)

PE 315. Lifeguard Training
American Red Cross certification. Instruction in advanced rescues and escape techniques. Prerequisite: swimming endurance required. Standard First Aid and CPR/BLS required for certification. Additional fee. Graded: S/U. Offered every semester. (2 sem. hrs.)

PE 410. Intercollegiate Swimming
Prerequisite: tryout. Graded: S/U. Students register for the course during the spring semester and receive a grade at the end of spring semester, but practices begin in the fall. Offered annually spring semester. (1 sem. hr)

PE 414. Intercollegiate Baseball
Prerequisite: tryout. Graded: S/U. Offered annually spring semester. (1 sem. hr)

PE 415. Intercollegiate Softball
Prerequisite: tryout. Graded: S/U. Offered annually spring semester. (1 sem. hr)

PE 416. Water Safety Instructor
This course is dedicated to developing the skills necessary to instruct and plan courses in the American Red Cross Swimming and Water Safety program. Students are expected to be proficient in the following strokes: front crawl, back crawl, elementary backstroke, breaststroke, and sidestroke. Additional fee. Prerequisite: permission of instructor. Graded: S/U. Offered annually spring semester. (2 sem. hrs.)

PE 420. Intercollegiate Volleyball
Prerequisite: tryout. Graded: S/U. Offered each semester. (1 sem. hr)

PE 430. Intercollegiate Tennis
Prerequisite: tryout. Graded: S/U. Offered annually fall semester. (1 sem. hr)

PE 435. Intercollegiate Cross-Country
Prerequisite: tryout. Graded: S/U. Offered annually fall semester. (1 sem. hr)

PE 440. Intercollegiate Field Hockey
Prerequisite: tryout. Graded: S/U. Offered annually fall semester. (1 sem. hr)

PE 442. Intercollegiate Soccer
Prerequisite: tryout. Graded: S/U. Offered annually fall semester. (1 sem. hr)

PE 445. Intercollegiate Lacrosse
Prerequisite: tryout. Graded: S/U. Offered annually spring semester. (1 sem. hr)

PE 446. Intercollegiate Basketball
Prerequisite: tryout. Graded: S/U. Offered annually spring semester. (1 sem. hr)

See also: DANC 205. Modern Dance Technique I; DANC 206. Ballet Technique I

Physics

Of the physics offerings, one course, PHYS 106L Introductory Astronomy, is of general interest and is intended for students majoring outside the sciences. This courses meets the College laboratory science requirement.

Fundamentals of Physics I and II (PHYS 111L and PHYS 212L) form a two-semester sequence and are designed to emphasize the fundamental principles of classical physics and to develop in the student a quantitative understanding of these principles. A third course, PHYS 302 Modern Physics, is an introduction to the revolutionary ideas of 20th-century physics.

PHYS 221L Principles of Electronics provides an introduction to the fast-changing science of information and signal processing. They are appropriate for students in the sciences.

The course MATH 301 Applied and Computational Mathematics is designed for a student with a major in mathematical and physical sciences. It concentrates on a variety of mathematical and computer-related tools with applications in physical science.

The remaining courses are designed for the mathematics and physics majors and offer more concentrated study of particular areas of physics and pre-engineering.

PHYS 104. Why Music Matters: The Science of Sound
Music appeals to all people, and has done so for thousands of years. We will apply scientific principles to the art of music to show why music evokes an emotional response. It will include occasional hands-on activity. 
(3 sem. hrs.)

PHYS 106L. Introductory Astronomy
This course covers the basic ideas and techniques of astronomy; the night sky; star physics and evolution; contents and structures of galaxies; and black holes and cosmology. Nighttime telescope work, weather permitting. Meets natural laboratory science distribution requirement. Offered alternate years in the fall semester. (4 sem. hrs.)

PHYS 111L. Fundamentals of Physics I
A calculus-based introductory course for all science, mathematics and pre-engineering students. Particle kinematics; vectors; Newton’s law; forces and their effects; energy conservation; systems of particles; momentum conservation; and rotational kinematics. Prerequisite: four years of high school mathematics and MATH 111 or equivalent. Offered annually in the spring semester. (4 sem. hrs.)

PHYS 212L. Fundamentals of Physics II
A continuation of PHYS 111L. Traveling and standing waves; electrostatics in vacuum and in materials (Coulomb’s and Gauss’s laws); Magnetostatics (Biot-Savart’s and Ampere’s laws); Faraday’s law of induction; lenses and mirrors; interference and diffraction of light. Prerequisite: PHYS 111L, MATH 112. Concurrent registration in MATH 211 is encouraged. Offered annually in the fall semester. (4 sem. hrs.)

PHYS 221L. Principles of Electronics
Introduction to analog and digital electronics. DC and AC circuit theory, impedance, filters, transistor operation and amplification, operational amplifiers, simple logic gates, counters, D/A converters. Prerequisite: PHYS 111L or permission of instructor. Offered alternate years. (4 sem. hrs.)

PHYS 290. Internship in Physics
Individually arranged participation in research with industry or a university. This course will not satisfy any requirement in the mathematics/physics major or minor. Prerequisite: permission of instructor. Graded: S/U. Offered every semester. (2−4 sem. hrs.)

PHYS 302. Modern Physics
This course completes the introductory sequence in physics. Topics include: the photo effect; black-body radiation; early results in atomic physics; the Schrodinger equation in one and three dimensions; hydrogen atom; atomic spectroscopy; introduction to quantum statistical mechanics, and applications. Prerequisite: PHYS 111L, MATH 112. (3 sem. hrs.)

PHYS 303. Theoretical Mechanics
An advanced theoretical study of Newton’s laws, making use of numerical computing. Dynamics of particles, orbits, coupled systems, damped oscillators, phase portraits, periodicity and chaos are topics typically covered. Prerequisite: PHYS 212L and MATH 112. Offered every other year. (3 sem. hrs.)

PHYS 307. Special Relativity and Intermediate Quantum Mechanics
An in-depth study of the two pillars of 20th-century physics. Einstein’s special relativity revolutionized humanity’s understanding of space and time, and we will study its treatment of kinetics and energetics, with consideration of length contraction, time dilation and mass-energy equivalence. We then turn to, initially, Schrodinger’s quantum mechanics as applied to bound and free states, culminating in the hydrogen atom. Finally we consider an alternative formulation, using operator methods, which allow for understanding of spin and angular momentum, or single and multi-electron systems. Prerequisites: MATH 111; PHYS 302, or permission of instructor. (3 sem. hrs.)

PHYS 340. Experimental Physics
Advanced laboratory work in the physical sciences, using a variety of specialized equipment (examples: Cavendish torsion balance; frequency response analysis of mechanical systems using Fourier methods; hyperfine splitting of rubidium vapor using Doppler methods; measurement of the e/m ratio). (3 sem. hrs.)

PHYS 351. Research in Physics and Computing
Collaboration with physics and related faculty in specialized work. Ongoing projects include: automated data acquisition and analysis, molecular order in liquid crystals, computing languages and computer modeling and simulations. May be repeated for credit. Prerequisite: permission of instructor. Offered as needed. (2 sem. hrs.)

PHYS 385. Topics in Physics
In-depth study of a selected advanced topic in physics, such as Electricity and Magnetism; Quantum Mechanics; or Thermal and Statistical Physics. Prerequisite: junior and senior majors and permission of instructor. May be repeated for credit with different topics. Offered as needed. (3 sem. hrs.)

PHYS 390. Advanced Internship in Physics
Individually arranged participation in research with industry or a university. This course will not satisfy any requirement in the mathematics/physics major or minor. Prerequisite: permission of instructor. Graded: S/U. Offered as needed. (2−4 sem. hrs.)

PHYS 398. Supplementary Advanced Work in Physics
Prerequisite: permission of instructor. Offered as needed. (3 sem. hrs.)

See also: CHEM 308L. Laboratory in Physical Chemistry; HIST 212. Introduction to the History of Science; MATH 301. Applied and Computational Mathematics

Political Science

POLS 155. American Politics
An introduction to the institutional and behavioral foundations of American politics. Offered every semester. (3 sem. hrs.)

POLS 201. Media and Politics
This course examines the role of media in American politics by assessing the relationships between and among the media, public officials and the public in the context of democratic norms and expectations. What should the media do in our democracy, and why? What does the media do? What are the implications? (3 sem. hrs.)

POLS 210. The United Nations Simulation
Students who participate actively in the Model U.N. Club may receive credit for work done in conjunction with the club’s activities. May be repeated for credit. Offered in the spring semester as needed. (1 sem. hr.)

POLS 230. Democratic Theory
Explores the central themes of democratic thought in political theory, including classical democracy, social contract theory and current issues. Both classical and contemporary readings address citizenship, equality and political participation. Prerequisite: POLS 155 or permission of instructor. Offered alternate years. (3 sem. hrs.)

POLS 235. The U.S. Congress
Introduces students to the development of public policy in the United States by focusing on Congress as an institution, congressional policy roles and relations between the legislative and executive branches. Prerequisite: POLS 155. Offered annually in the spring semester. (3 sem. hrs.)

POLS 262. Politics in Developing Countries
An analysis of political institutions, dependency, militarism and democratization in developing countries. Prerequisite: POLS 155 or INTL 151. Offered alternate years. (3 sem. hrs.)

POLS 267. International Organization
Examination of the goals, nature and problems of international organizations with specific focus on the role of the United Nations and its related agencies and programs. Prerequisite: INTL 151 or POLS 155 or permission of instructor. Offered alternate years. (3 sem. hrs.)

POLS 268. Comparative Governments and Politics: Cases of Predominantly Black Nations
The study of the structures of the major political and social institutions and the struggle for power in predominantly black nations. Prerequisite: POLS 155 or INTL 151. Offered alternate years. (3 sem. hrs.)

POLS 285/385. Topics in Public Policy and Politics
In-depth study of a selected topic in political science. Study of participation, public policy and policy making in industrial societies. Topics may include: poverty, housing, education, job training, health care, unemployment, welfare, conservation, political participation, elections and campaigns. Prerequisite: POLS 155 or sophomore standing. May be repeated for credit with different topics. Past topics have included: U.S. Social Welfare Policy; Race, Public Policy and Democracy in the U.S.; The Politics of Terrorism; and Politics and Whiteness in the U.S. Offered as needed. (3 sem. hrs.)

POLS 290/390. Internship in Political Science
Students may submit proposals for internships in any governmental or political office or in a legal office. Prerequisite: one course in political science or permission of instructor. Graded: S/U. May be repeated for credit. Offered as needed. (2−4 sem. hrs.)

POLS 299/399. Independent Study in Political Science
Prerequisite: permission of instructor and approval. May be repeated for credit. Offered as needed. (1−3 sem. hrs.)

POLS 307. Contemporary Political Ideologies
Introduces political theory by examining the ideologies that have most influenced modern, political institutions, movements and arguments. Possible ideologies include liberalism, socialism, fascism, nationalism and feminism. Prerequisite: POLS 155 or INTL 151 or permission of instructor. Offered alternate years.
(3 sem. hrs.)

POLS 320. Liberalism and Its Critics
Liberalism as a central tradition of the West. From its mid-17th century origins, liberalism has encountered a series of problems: of the individual, exchange, the public, limits, power, welfare and the self. Response by critics of liberalism. Prerequisite: POLS 155 or INTL 151, or permission of instructor. Offered alternate years. (3 sem. hrs.)

POLS 332. Old and New Paradigms in World Politics
Critical discussion on the old and new paradigms within the world of politics. Major topics will include population control, environmentalism, search for peace, etc. Prerequisite: POLS 155 or INTL 151 or permission of instructor. Offered alternate years. (3 sem. hrs.)

POLS 340. Politics of the Emerging Nations in Asia
This course will compare contemporary political institutions, the role of civil society, the national ideologies, and economic policies of the emerging and non-emerging countries in Asia. Prerequisite: INTL 151 or POLS 155. Offered alternate years. (3 sem. hrs.)

POLS 345. Public Opinion
An investigation of the substance and structure of public opinion in the United States. Students will assess the current literature and conduct independent research. Prerequisite: POLS 155 or permission of instructor. Offered alternate fall semesters. (3 sem. hrs.)

POLS 355. Approaches to International Relations
Survey of the main theories and approaches to international relations, such as systems analysis, idealism, realism, environmental and psychological theories, functionalism, imperialism, conflict and decision-making theories. Prerequisite: INTL 151 or POLS 155 or permission of instructor. Offered alternate fall semesters. (3 sem. hrs.)

POLS 360. The U.S. Judiciary
Examines the role of the U.S. judiciary and public policy with an emphasis on judicial review, civil rights and liberties and the Supreme Court. Prerequisite: POLS 155 or HIST 242. Offered alternate years. (3 sem. hrs.)

POLS 365. Governments and Politics in Industrialized Countries
Analysis of the government and politics in major industrialized countries with particular emphasis on political culture, political institutions, policies and electoral process and behavior. Prerequisite: POLS 155 or INTL 151, or permission of instructor. Offered alternate spring semesters. (3 sem. hrs.)

POLS 395. Tutorial in Political Science
In-depth study of an area of special interest. Topic determined jointly by a faculty member and student(s) in consultation. Meets weekly for one hour. May be repeated for credit. Offered as needed. (1 sem. hr.)

POLS 399. Independent Study in Political Science
Prerequisite: permission of instructor and approval. May be repeated for credit. Offered every semester. (1−3 sem. hrs.)

POLS 401. Senior Seminar and Thesis in Political Science
This seminar is about the examination of individual research issues and topics that seniors in political science are working on in their theses. Besides specific sessions on the methodological and theoretical issues, seniors will regularly meet to exchange ideas related to their common experience. Prerequisite: POLS senior. Offered annually in the fall semester. (4 sem. hrs.)

See also: OCS 275. Women and Public Policy Seminars

Psychology

PSY 101. General Psychology
An introduction to the scientific study of behavior, including an examination of various approaches to psychological thought. Among the topics addressed are learning, cognition, development, motivation and psychopathology. Format varies; may be lecture or seminar. (3 sem. hrs.)

PSY 200. Sport Psychology
An overview of the theories and research related to sport behavior. Topics include motivation; effect of attention, emotion and mood on performance; cognitive and behavioral interventions; social psychology of sport. Offered every spring semester. Prerequisite: PSY 101. (3 sem. hrs.)

PSY 206. Health Psychology
An introduction to the interdisciplinary field of health psychology. Students will learn theories and principles of health psychology and apply them to wellness, prevention, illness and health care. (3 sem. hrs.)

PSY 210. Child Development
An introduction to developmental psychology covering conception through adolescence. Physical, social and cognitive development are explored with emphasis on early and mid-childhood. Major theories are applied to common issues in development, e.g., parent-child relations, education, poverty and delinquency. Prerequisite: PSY 101. (3 sem. hrs.)

PSY 214. The Psychology of Women
This course uses the theories and methods of psychology to focus on women’s development, personality and role in society. (3 sem. hrs.)

PSY 224. Social Psychology
This course will explore the interaction between the individual and the social world. Topics covered will include social cognition; the self; attitudes and persuasion; group process; prejudice, stereotyping and discrimination; aggression; and prosocial behavior. Cross-cultural perspectives will be examined. Prerequisite: PSY 101. (3 sem. hrs.)

PSY 227. Abnormal Psychology
A survey of research and descriptive aspects of behavior pathology and methods of treatment. Prerequisite: PSY 101. (3 sem. hrs.)

PSY 235. Forensic Psychology
This course provides an introduction to forensic psychology, which is the intersection of psychology and the legal system. Examples of topics covered are expert-witness issues, insanity pleas, false confessions, issues surrounding repressed memory, eyewitness testimony and criminal profiling. Special attention will be given to the psychological implications of the legal system’s treatment of minority groups. Prerequisite: PSY 101. 
(3 sem. hrs.)

PSY 242. Drugs and Behavior
A study of mind-altering drugs and their effects on the central nervous system and behavior. Drug dependence and abuse. Principles of psychopharmacology. Prerequisite: PSY 101 or permission of instructor. (3 sem. hrs.)

PSY 250. Human Sexuality
A survey of the biological, psychological and cultural aspects of human sexuality, including the development of sexual behavior, love and sexual relationships, AIDS, sexual victimization, the physiology and sexual behavior and sexual dysfunctions, and controversial issues in human sexuality. (3 sem. hrs.)

PSY 270. Foundations and Methods in Psychology
This course is an introduction to methodological thinking in psychology, using a hands-on approach that applies basic methodological concepts to professional and popular press reports related to psychological concepts. The course will provide students with a foundation for success in the study of psychology as well as critical thinking skills that can be applied to any social science and in everyday life. (3 sem. hrs.)

PSY 275. Positive Psychology
Review of strength-based approaches to psychology. Research, theory and cross-cultural perspectives on resiliency, gratitude, forgiveness, spirituality, humor, mindfulness, emotional intelligence, and creativity and their effects on well-being and “the good life” are just some of the topics to be investigated. (3 sem. hrs.)

PSY 280. Psychology of Art
An examination of the creation and experience of art as a product of human behavior and mental process, and an exploration of the positive uses to which it can be applied (e.g., toward the pursuit of wellness or social justice). (3 sem. hrs.)

PSY 285. Topics in Psychology
In-depth study of a selected topic in psychology. May be repeated for credit with different topics. Past topics have included: Constructing Sexual Identities: Cross-Cultural Perspectives; Environmental Psychology; Violence and Schools; and Organizational Psychology. (2−4 sem. hrs.)

PSY 290. Internship Program in Psychology
Individually arranged field experiences in psychological settings, for example, psychiatric hospitals, both private and public, and education classes for students with disabilities. A journal and a paper evaluating the experience will be required as a form of assessment. Prerequisite: two courses in psychology and permission of instructor. Graded: S/U. (2−4 sem. hrs.)

PSY 301. Clinical Child Psychology
An examination of prevalent psychological disorders among children (including behavioral, emotional, health-related, development and learning disorders). Objectives include: improved understanding of etiology, learning the basics of assessment and diagnosis, and applying theories to the treatment of childhood mental disorders. Prerequisite: PSY 210 or PSY 227 or permission of instructor. Offered in alternate years during the fall semester. (3 sem. hrs.)

PSY 306. Organizational Behavior
Students will explore issues such as employee motivation, group goal achievement, development of leadership skills and working successfully with diverse populations. We will discuss power and politics, stress and coping, and other topics related to navigating the workplace. Prerequisite: PSY 101 or permission of instructor and at least sophomore standing. PSY 224 Social Psychology is a recommended (but not required) prerequisite. (3 sem. hrs.)

PSY 318. Adolescent Development
Psychological approaches exploring the diversity of adolescent development. The course will focus on the intersections of culture, race, class, gender and sexuality during adolescence. Topics include: growing up rural/urban, immigration and schooling, resiliency, love and intimacy and identity in global times. Prerequisite: PSY 101. (3 sem. hrs.)

PSY 330. Indigenous Psychologies
Emphasizes a cultural sciences approach to psychology, including counseling/therapy, assessment and research. Challenges assumptions of Western psychology and emphasizes the necessity of understanding each culture within its own social and ecological context and frame of reference. Prerequisite: PSY 101 and two other courses in psychology or permission of the instructor. (3 sem. hrs.)

PSY 335. Psychology of Environmental Sustainability
This course examines theoretical perspectives and empirical research on promoting environmentally sustainable behavior. Through team-based, service learning projects, students apply knowledge gained in the course to address sustainability issues on the Wells campus and in the surrounding community. Prerequisite: sophomore standing or above. (3 sem. hrs.)

PSY 338. Psychotherapy
An examination of the major systems of psychotherapy (psychoanalysis, cognitive, person-centered, behavioral, etc). Objectives include: developing a model of therapy, learning basic elements of counseling, working with diverse populations developing and applying knowledge of the ethics code. Prerequisite: 
PSY 227 or PSY 301, or permission of instructor. (3 sem. hrs.)

PSY 340. Psycholinguistics
The psychological study of language: how it is learned, produced, comprehended and used. Philosophical, biological, cultural, methodological and theoretical issues will be covered. Special topics such as animal language, sociolinguistics, second language acquisition and language disorder will also be discussed. Prerequisite: PSY 101 (experience with a second language and PSY 347 are desirable but not required). 
(3 sem. hrs.)

PSY 342. Biological Bases of Behavior
A study of the three biological bases of behavior—nervous system, endocrine system, and genetics—and how each plays a role in the expression of behavior, from thirst and hunger to sexual behavior to addictions to psychological disorder and more. Prerequisite: PSY 101. (3 sem. hrs.)

PSY 343. Neuropsychology
A study of clinical and experimental research concerning human brain function with particular emphasis on psychological deficit. Methods of assessment of neuropsychological impairment. Prerequisite: two courses in psychology or permission of instructor. (3 sem. hrs.)

PSY 347. Cognitive Psychology
Cognitive psychology is concerned with the scientific study of the mind and how we process, store and retrieve information. Mental functions studied in the course include perception, attention, memory, reasoning, decision making, problem solving and language processing. Prerequisite: PSY 101. (3 sem. hrs.)

PSY 349. Cognition and Culture
An interdisciplinary exploration of the interplay between cultural and cognitive processes, the resulting diversity of mind and its role in actions such as intergroup conflict resolution. Conducted as an upper-level discussion seminar complemented by the cultural perspectives of guest speakers. Prerequisite: PSY 101 or ANTH 161 (PSY 347 recommended). (3 sem. hrs.)

PSY 355. Adult Development and Aging
Using a lifespan approach, this course examines recent research on the physiological, psychological and social dimensions of adult development. The goals of this course are to acquaint students with the basic processes of adult development and to promote positive attitudes and expectations about aging. Prerequisite: PSY 101. (3 sem. hrs.)

PSY 360L. Qualitative Research Methods
Methodologies in psychology which use qualitative description and analysis. Methods emphasized: interviews, case study and participant observation. Extensive use of video and computer technologies for data collection and analysis. Three class hours and two of field-based study. Prerequisite: two courses in psychology and MATH 151, or permission of instructor. (4 sem. hrs.)

PSY 365L. Quantitative Methods in Psychology
Basic quantitative research methods commonly used in psychology are examined in detail, with particular emphasis on choosing appropriate methods for research questions/hypothesis in different areas of psychology (e.g., developmental, social, cognitive). For the laboratory session, students spend two hours each week collecting and/or analyzing data. Prerequisite: two courses in psychology and MATH 151, or permission of instructor. (4 sem. hrs.)

PSY 370. Sensation and Perception
An exploration and appreciation of the sensory and perceptual processes that produce an interpretation of the world for us. Experiential activities will include perceptual illusions and experiments, art museum field trip, and mammalian eye dissection. Prerequisite: PSY 101 or permission of instructor. (3 sem. hrs.)

PSY 385. Topics in Psychology
In-depth study of a selected topic in psychology. May be repeated for credit with different topics. Past topics have included: Constructing Sexual Identities: Cross-Cultural Perspectives; Environmental Psychology, Sensation and Perception; and Stereotyping and Stigmatization. (2−4 sem. hrs.)

PSY 390. Advanced Internship Program in Psychology
Individually arranged field experiences for students who have taken PSY 290. A journal and a research paper on a topic related to the internship will be required of students enrolled in this program as a form of assessment. Prerequisite: PSY 290 and permission of instructor. Graded: S/U. (2−4 sem. hrs.)

PSY 395. Tutorial in Psychology
In-depth study of an area of special interest. Topic determined jointly by a faculty member and student(s) in consultation. Meets weekly for one hour. May be repeated for credit. (1 sem. hr.)

PSY 396. Tutorial: Diversity and Psychology
We will critically explore such topics as how western research shapes our understanding of human behavior, possibilities for constructing different psychologies, how paradigms frame our understanding of human life, how class and gender shape identities in the classroom, implicit assumptions in developmental theory and their consequences in the practice of psychology. Participants will be encouraged to continue critical examination of their attitudes, beliefs, and assumptions regarding race, class, gender, sexual orientation, ability, culture, etc. through dialogues with other participants. (1 sem. hr.)

PSY 398. Supplementary Advanced Work in Psychology
Prerequisite: adequate preparation for advanced work in the field, and permission and approval of instructor. May be repeated for credit. (3 sem. hrs.)

PSY 399. Independent Study in Psychology
Prerequisite: permission of instructor and approval. May be repeated for credit. (1−3 sem. hrs.)

PSY 403. Senior Seminar: Contemporary Issues in Psychology
An examination of selected theoretical and professional issues in psychology. Students will prepare a thesis based on review of the literature on a topic approved by the instructor and the department. Prerequisite: senior standing with major field in psychology. (4 sem. hrs.)

PSY 404. Senior Empirical Research Project in Psychology
Empirical research project based on PSY 403 research proposal. Prerequisite: permission of instructor. (4 sem. hrs.)

See also: BIOL 324L. Animal Behavior; MATH 151. Elementary Statistics; MATH 251. Mathematical Statistics; WGS 260. Indigenous Women's Experiences

Religion

RELG 100. Gods and Creation: East and West
This course is a basic introduction to religion in a diversity of cultural contexts, ranging from the ancient Near East to African traditional religions, and focusing on how different traditions have envisioned the gods, the created order, and the place of humanity within that order. Offered annually in the fall semester. (3 sem. hrs.)

RELG 255. Islamic Civilization and Culture
This course will trace Islam’s historical development and cultural contributions, analyze its basic beliefs and practices, examine the Muslim experience in America and assess Islam’s place in the contemporary world. Offered alternate years. (3 sem. hrs.)

RELG 263. The Hebrew Bible and Jewish Tradition
A study of the literature, religion and faith of ancient Israel in light of the ancient Near Eastern environment, religious and ethical factors within Israel, and the course of historical events and social change. Offered alternate years. (3 sem. hrs.)

RELG 264. The New Testament and Early Christianity
A study of the literature, religion and faith of early Christianity, as compared to and contrasted with early Judaism and Hellenistic religions. Offered alternate years. (3 sem. hrs.)

RELG 265. Christianity
An introduction to central figures, writings and intellectual movements in the history of Christianity and related religious traditions from late antiquity to the beginning of the Reformation in Europe. Themes will range from significant theological ideas, such as theories about the person of Jesus of Nazareth, to the evolution of Christian moral teaching on abortion and the status of women. Prerequisite: RELG 263 or RELG 264. Offered alternate years. (3 sem. hrs.)

RELG 269. History, Myth and Religion
A general introduction to the phenomenology of religion, examining the patterns of humanity’s experience of the sacred, from ancient to modern times, and how particular beliefs, symbols and sacred histories (myths) have persisted and interacted in texts, art and ritual. Offered alternate years. (3 sem. hrs.)

RELG 275. Religions of Asia
An exploration of Asian religious traditions with special reference to cultural origins, social context and foundational beliefs and practices. Offered alternate years. (3 sem. hrs.)

RELG 321. Faith and Post-Modern Culture
This course explores the unique characteristics and complexities of faith in contemporary cultures. Offered occasionally. (3 sem. hrs.)

RELG 330. Native Americans and the Environment
This seminar will provide an overview of traditional Native American world views and ceremonial life. Special attention will be given to an in-depth exploration of the environmental philosophies and sacred practices of selected peoples. Offered occasionally. (3 sem. hrs.)

RELG 375. Body and Soul: From Antiquity to Post-Modernity
An exploration of the way in which religions have conceptualized the human body, human sexuality and the soul. The course will examine themes ranging from body-soul dualism to materialism, reincarnation and the afterlife, with special reference to the cultural contexts of these beliefs and the scientific, ethical and philosophical grounds for holding them. Prerequisite: one course in religion, philosophy or anthropology. Offered alternate years. (3 sem. hrs.)

See also: ANTH 250. Hawaii: Colonialism and Tourism

Science, Health and Values

SHV 290/390. Internship in Science, Health and Values
Internship in a setting that permits students to learn firsthand about issues related to health including ethics, health care and health administration. Prerequisite: sophomore standing, at least one course in Ethics, and permission of instructor; SHV 290 is a prerequisite for SHV 390. Graded: S/U. Offered as needed. (2−4 sem. hrs.)

SHV 399. Independent Study in Science, Health and Values
The independent study is an opportunity to reflect on the moral ramifications of the knowledge about health and health care acquired in the course of the science, health and values minor. Prerequisite: SHV minor, junior standing. Offered as needed. (1−3 sem. hrs.)

Social and Economic Justice

SEJ 250. Introduction to Community Organizing
This course helps students bridge the gap between learning about social injustices and doing something about them. By examining social movements of today and yesterday, students will focus on a specific issue and develop a campaign for change in the future. Prerequisite: permission of instructor. Offered alternate years. (3 sem. hrs.)

SEJ 290/390. Internship in Social and Economic Justice
Students will gain experience working for an organization that promotes social and/or economic justice, or on a campaign that is fighting for social and/or economic justice. Arrangements are the student’s responsibility, but must be made in consultation with the SEJ faculty sponsor and the Office of Academic and Career Advising. Costs are the responsibility of the student. Prerequisite: permission of instructor and at least one course in the minor. Graded: S/U. May be repeated for credit. Offered every semester. (2−4 sem. hrs.)

Social Sciences

SS 290/390. Internship in the Social Sciences
Individually arranged field experiences in the social sciences. Graded: S/U. (2−4 sem. hrs.)

SS 294. Research Methods for the Social Sciences
Study of major empirical techniques of quantitative and qualitative research, with an emphasis on the experiment, social survey, content analysis and structured interviews. Readings on research design and writing research will be complemented by a research project. Prerequisite: one course in the social sciences or permission of instructor. Offered annually in the spring semester. (4 sem. hrs.)

SS 299/399. Independent Study in the Social Sciences
Individually arranged independent study in the social sciences. (1−3 sem. hrs.)

Sociology and Anthropology

SOCA 401. Senior Essay and Research Seminar in Sociology and Anthropology
Preparation of an essay in the field of anthropology or sociology based on class work and individual research. Intended for students majoring in anthropology or sociology. Prerequisite: major in anthropology or sociology. Offered annually in the fall semester. (4 sem. hrs.)

Sociology

SOC 151. Principles of Sociology
An introduction to the basic concepts and major perspectives of sociology, examining in particular the relationship between personality and society, the study of groups as social systems, and the analysis of societies and their structure. (3 sem. hrs.)

SOC 200. Humans, Animals and Interaction
What can our close living and working relationships with non-human animals reveal about human society? Why do we eat some animals but consider others (wo)men’s best friend? This course examines our complicated and often contradictory relationships with animals. Prerequisite: SOC 151 or ANTH 161. Offered alternate years. (3 sem. hrs.)

SOC 228. Social Problems
This course examines the complex process through which public issues are transformed into social problems and addressed through social policy. Readings and discussions apply a social constructivist model to several contemporary social problems (e.g., teen pregnancy, HIV/AIDS, obesity and bullying). (3 sem. hrs.)

SOC 235. Social Deviance
This course deals with issues of power in the definition of deviance, and the creation, resistance and abandonment of deviant identities. We end the semester with an examination of the “normal.” Prerequisite: SOC 151 or PSY 227 or permission of instructor. Offered alternate years. (3 sem. hrs.)

SOC 277. Social Inequality: Class and Ethnicity
This course examines issues of poverty, wealth, power and powerlessness as they pertain to class and ethnicity. The main focus will be on the United States, but we will also examine global inequalities. Prerequisite: SOC 151 or SOC 228, or permission of instructor. Offered every spring. (3 sem. hrs.)

SOC 285/385. Topics in Sociology
In-depth study of a selected topic in sociology. Past topics have been: Sociology of Work and Occupations; Gender Differences in Language and Aggression; Hate Crimes and Bias-Motivated Violence; and Gender. May be repeated for credit with different topics. Offered as needed. (2−4 sem. hrs.)

SOC 290. Internship in Social Service Agencies
Students learn within social agencies and institutional settings where they observe trained professionals working with clients. The settings may include mental hospitals, child care or nursery schools, nursing homes, etc. Costs and arrangements are the responsibility of the student. Prerequisite: one sociology or anthropology course and permission of instructor. Graded: S/U. Offered every semester. (2−4 sem. hrs.)

SOC 315. Men and Masculinities
This course critically examines the matrix of masculinities in American culture, as well as the structures and practices which contribute to the scripting of gender relations, men’s use of power and the constraints associated with some masculine forms. Prerequisite: SOC 151 or WGS 148 or ANTH 161 and sophomore standing or permission of instructor. Offered alternate years. (3 sem. hrs.)

SOC 331. Mass Media and Society
Media are primary socializing agents. This course investigates the relationship between media and hyper- consumerism in American society, the ways media contribute to the formation of racial, gender-based, age-based and class-based stereotypes, the relationship between media and democracy and the degree to which media may be an agent of cultural imperialism. Prerequisite: SOC 151 or SOC 228 or SEJ 260. Offered alternate years. (3 sem. hrs.)

SOC 363. Sociological Theory
This course provides a survey of major sociological theorists from the origins of the field to present day. The course explores the important tensions (e.g., continuity/social change, structure/agency, and society/individual) which give rise to competing streams of social thought. Prerequisite: SOC 151 and rising sophomore, or permission of instructor. Offered annually during the fall semester. (3 sem. hrs.)

SOC 390. Advanced Internship in Social Service Agencies
In addition to observing trained professionals working with clients within social agencies and institutional settings, students in this advanced internship assume greater responsibility for working with clients served by the institution. Analysis in the term paper should reflect the knowledge and background of an upper-level student. Prerequisite: five sociology and anthropology courses and permission of instructor. Graded: S/U. Offered as needed. (2−4 sem. hrs.)

SOC 395. Tutorial in Sociology
In-depth study of an area of special interest. Topic determined jointly by a faculty member and student(s) in consultation. Meets weekly for one hour. May be repeated for credit. Offered as needed. (1 sem. hr.)

SOC 398. Independent Research in Sociology
Topic open. Prerequisite: Adequate preparation for advanced work in the field and permission of Instructor. Offered as needed. May be repeated for credit. (1−3 sem. hrs.)

SOC 399. Independent Study in Sociology
Prerequisite: permission of instructor and approval. May be repeated for credit. Offered every semester. (1−3 sem. hrs.)

Spanish

SPAN 101/102. Elementary Spanish I and II
Oral training, grammar essentials and practice in writing and reading. Second semester also includes dialogues and "lectures" which present current social, economic and cultural issues of Latin American and Hispanic cultures in the U.S. Four meetings per week. Language laboratory, films, slides and drills. Prerequisite for SPAN 101: no more than two years of high school Spanish; those with two years of high school Spanish may take a placement exam to determine enrollment at a higher level. Prerequisite for SPAN 102: SPAN 101 or permission of instructor. Offered annually: SPAN 101 in fall, SPAN 102 in spring. (4 sem. hrs. each)

SPAN 123/124. Intermediate Spanish I and II
Designed to improve the student’s ability to understand, speak, read and write Spanish, while concentrating on social and cultural aspects of Hispanic society. The second semester places increased emphasis on reading and writing. Three meetings per week and language laboratory, films and drills. Prerequisite for SPAN 123: SPAN 102, or Level III or IV of high school Spanish, or permission of instructor; those with three years of high school Spanish may take a placement exam to determine enrollment at a higher level. Prerequisite for SPAN 124: SPAN 123 or permission of instructor. Offered annually: SPAN 123 in fall, SPAN 124 in spring. (3 sem. hrs. each)

SPAN 128. Medical Spanish
This course addresses the need of Wells students in fields such as pre-med, science, biology, etc. of some experience with the Spanish language. In this course, students develop communicative proficiency and accuracy in the use of the Spanish language in medical settings with Spanish-speaking patients. Students are exposed to pertinent information about the Hispanic culture as well when it comes to hospitals, diseases, medical attention, emergencies, etc. Students also participate in language tasks through listening, reading, writing and conversation. Prerequisite: SPAN 101 and 102, placement exam, transfer credits or permission of instructor. (3 sem. hrs.)

SPAN 200. Spanish for the Professions
The course focuses on the importance of bilingualism in the U.S., strategies for lifelong learning, and culture; it includes a review of relevant language. The students will gain necessary skills to read, write and translate documents related to different fields. (3 sem. hrs.)

SPAN 203. Advanced Grammar in Context
Study of structural principles in Spanish. Uses current audiovisual technology, practice in writing, reading comprehension, and conversation aimed at the development of a reasonable competence in writing and speaking correct Spanish. Prerequisite: SPAN 124, Level V of high school Spanish, or departmental placement exam, or permission of instructor. Offered annually in the fall semester. (3 sem. hrs.)

SPAN 204. Conversation and Composition through Film
The course aims to give students a new appreciation of Spanish language cinema and Hispanic culture while improving their written and conversational skills. Prerequisite: SPAN 124, Level V of high school Spanish, or departmental placement exam, or permission of instructor. Offered alternate years. (3 sem. hrs.)

SPAN 207. Introduction to Hispanic Literature
A study of the most pertinent literary works of the Spanish speaking world, giving special attention to the social, ideological, cultural and economic background. Students will also be introduced to literary criticism to apply to reading assignments. Prerequisite: SPAN 203 or SPAN 204; permission of instructor or placement exam. (3 sem. hrs.)

SPAN 209. Introduction to Hispanic Culture
This course offers students the fundamentals of the Hispanic culture, utilizing different perspectives and critical readings. Taught in Spanish, its mission is to synthesize the history and traditions of Spain, Latin America and the Hispanic Caribbean. Prerequisite: SPAN 203 or SPAN 204; placement exam or permission of instructor. (3 sem. hrs.)

SPAN 211. Introduction to Hispanic Linguistics
This course is an introduction to basic concepts in Spanish linguistics and the methodology of its acquisition. It explores fundamental aspects of Spanish linguistics, including Spanish variation, acquisition and phonology, among other crucial topics. Prerequisite: SPAN 203 or SPAN 204 or permission of instructor. (3 sem. hrs.)

SPAN 213. Spanish Translation
This course helps students attain reading and listening proficiency, as well as translation skills of speech, texts and media in Spanish. There is a review of crucial grammar topics that can present difficulty to a translator of Spanish. Prerequisite: SPAN 123/124 or placement exam. (3 sem. hrs.)

SPAN 285. Topics in Spanish and Latin American Studies
In-depth study of a selected topic in Spanish and Latin American studies. Topics may include Spanish linguistics, advanced composition, and/or topics in Hispanic literature and culture. May be repeated for credit with different topics. (The number of semester hours will vary depending on topic.)

SPAN 290/390. Internship in Spanish
Students wishing to investigate careers in which the Spanish language and culture play an important role may work out a project in consultation with the Spanish department. In order to be considered for this program the student should have an appropriate background in Spanish. Prerequisite: evidence of workplace-ready fluency in Spanish and permission of instructor. Graded S/U. Offered annually as needed. (2−4 sem. hrs.)

SPAN 295/395. Tutorial in Spanish and Latin American Studies
In-depth study of an area of special interest. Topic determined jointly by a faculty member and student(s) in consultation. Meets weekly for one hour. May be repeated for credit. Offered as needed. (1 sem. hr.)

SPAN 299/399. Independent Study in Spanish and Latin American Studies
Prerequisite: permission of instructor and approval. May be repeated for credit. Offered as needed. (1−3 sem. hrs.)

SPAN 305. Hispanic Culture and the Environment
A study of the most pertinent cultural works (literary, film, etc.) of the Spanish speaking world that address discourses of the environment, sustainability, pollution and ecology, with a critical framework covering social, ideological, cultural and economic analysis. Prerequisite: SPAN 203 or SPAN 204; permission of instructor or placement exam. (3 sem. hrs.)

SPAN 310. The Hero in Hispanic Culture and Film
We discuss discourses of the “hero” in the Hispanic culture and problems that are inherent to the cultural “creation” of what a hero is and/or stands for. We’ll study fictional or real-life heroes such as Don Quixote, Maradona and Zapata. Taught in Spanish. (3 sem. hrs.)

SPAN 312. Modern Hispanic Popular Culture
Course analyzes contemporary popular culture representations in the Hispanic world centered on television, radio, film, comic books and music, examining the influence it has on identity construction and the shaping of ideology and political struggles. Taught in Spanish. Prerequisite: SPAN 203 or SPAN 204, placement exam or permission of instructor. (3 sem. hrs.)

SPAN 315. Hispanic Views on Gender and Feminism
In-depth study of issues related to women’s and gender studies in the Hispanic world, focusing on matriarchy, marianismo, machismo and the complex juxtaposition of cultural traditions and progressive movements that challenge the hierarchy of power. Taught in Spanish. Prerequisite: SPAN 203 or SPAN 204, placement exam or permission of instructor. Offered occasionally. (3 sem. hrs.)

SPAN 316. Monsters in Hispanic Literature and Film
In-depth study of the ever-presence of monsters in Hispanic literature and film. Groundbreaking texts in “monster theory” will serve as a foundation to understanding why we fear, yet are drawn to, horror and monsters. Taught in Spanish. Prerequisite: SPAN 203 or SPAN 204. (3 sem. hrs.)

SPAN 317. Afro-Hispanic History, Literature and Culture
Insight into the historical presence or absence of Africans in Spain and Latin America. Introduction to powerful figures that have shaped the structure of Hispanic identity such as José María y Morelos and San Martín de Porres. Taught in Spanish. Prerequisite: SPAN 203 or SPAN 204, placement Exam or permission of instructor. Offered as needed. (3 sem. hrs.)

SPAN 319. Women and Society in 19th-Century Spain
A close study of the role of women in Spain and the struggle against their position in a traditional patriarchal society; the birth of feminism; and and women’s fight toward emancipation. Includes readings from the most important novelists of the period: Pardo Bazán, Valera, Galdos and Clarín. Prerequisite: SPAN 205 or permission of instructor. Offered alternate years. (3 sem. hrs.)

SPAN 370. Literature and Film: Two Ways of Telling a Story
19th- and 20th-century Spanish literature: the realism of Galdós, the lyricism of Garcia Lorca and the socio- political commitment of Sender, Delibes and Cela. Emphasis on the impact of their works both as films and on filmmaking in contemporary Spain. Prerequisite: SPAN 205. Conducted in Spanish. Offered alternate years in the fall. (3 sem. hrs.)

SPAN 385. Topics in Spanish and Latin American Studies
In-depth study of a selected topic in Spanish and Latin American studies. Past topics have included: Renaissance and Baroque in Spanish and Latin American Letters and Societies; Magin Realism in Latin American Literature; and Latin American Masterpieces. May be repeated for credit with different topics. Past topics include Study of Developments in Dramatic Literary Expression in Latin America throughout the 20th century. Includes works by Villaurrutia, Carballido, Dragún, Diaz, Gambaro, Luis Rafael Sanchez and Fornes. Prerequisite: at least one 200-level Spanish course or permission of instructor. Offered as needed.

SPAN 401. Spanish Senior Thesis I
In this course, students will work closely with the Spanish faculty in choosing the right topic for their senior thesis. Moreover, students will conduct research on their topic as well as acquiring the critical foundation for their senior thesis. Offered annually during the fall semester. (2 sem. hrs.)

SPAN 402. Spanish Senior Thesis II
Selected topics chosen to meet student needs. Conducted in Spanish. Required of seniors majoring in Spanish. Prerequisite: Spanish major with senior standing or permission of instructor. Offered annually in the spring semester. Prerequisite: SPAN 401. (2 sem. hrs.)

See also: IES Abroad Santiago, Chile; IES Abroad Granada, Spain; Costa Rica Program; HUM 360. Latin American Literature, Revolution and History; HUM 378. Women and Literature in Latin America

Sport Management

SMGT 101. Introduction to Sport Management
Students will be given an overview of the topics related to sport management including: history and ethics in sport management, structure and policies of sport governance, professional relations, career opportunities and field experiences in sport organizations. Fall semester. (3 sem. hrs.)

SMGT 210. Contemporary Sport
The duality of sport in modern world is explored and evaluated. Issues include racial and gender equity, player behavior and violence, health and child welfare in youth sports, the National Collegiate Athletic Association and its relation to amateurism, and professional sports and their impact on communities. Fall semester. (3 sem. hrs.)

SMGT 310. Organizational Leadership and Management in Sport
Students will engage in the study of management responsibilities in sport organizations. Principles in leadership qualities, research, organizational goals, structure, conflict, change and decision making. Prerequisite: SMGT 101. Every spring semester (3 sem. hrs.)

SMGT 290/390. Internship in Sport Management
Individually arranged participation in the work at an institution engaged in sport management, such as youth, scholastic, collegiate, minor and major professional sport organization. Prerequisite: SMGT 101 or SMGT 210 (2−4 sem. hrs.)

Sustainability

SUS 101. Introduction to Sustainability
An overview of the concept of sustainability, its evolution and selected methodologies to quantify impacts. This course equips students to develop and evaluate solutions to national and local challenges by balancing factors that are environmental, economic and socio-cultural. Offered every fall semester. (3 sem. hrs.)

SUS 195. Tutorial: Critical Thinking about Sustainability
Students will attend sustainability-related events and activities during the semester and write reflections on their experience. Students will be prepared to discuss those events they attended at weekly meetings of the tutorial group. Events eligible for tutorial credit will be announced in advance or pre-approved by the instructor for eligibility. Events will include, but not be limited to, Sustainability Perspectives series and Sustainable Business series talks, and other events and activities organized by the Center for Sustainability and the Environment, and other campus programs and groups. (2 sem. hrs.)

SUS 290. Internship in Sustainability
Individually arranged participation in work of institutions devoted to sustainability. Prerequisite: Permission of instructor. (Graded: S/U)

SUS 390. Advanced Internship in Sustainability
Individually arranged participation in work of institutions devoted to sustainability. Students will develop at a more advanced level the sills and techniques demanded from a previous sustainability internship. Prerequisite: SUS 290 and permission of instructor. (Graded: S/U)

SUS 401. Senior Project in Sustainability
Students will complete research projects on a topic of their interest. Prerequisite: senior standing in sustainability major. (3 sem. hrs.)

Theatre

THEA 100. Introduction to Performing Arts
Students gain practical knowledge of the entertainment business while deepening their theoretical understanding and aesthetic appreciation of fine craftsmanship in the disciplines of dance, music and theatre. Required field trips to live performances are followed by class discussion and writing assignments. Hands-on work in scene shop, box office, and other areas. Additional fee: $80 for theatre tickets and travel. Offered annually in the fall semester. (4 sem. hrs.)

THEA 128. Acting One
Exploration of acting through improvisation and foundation work with dialogue and text. An introduction for non-majors and those considering majoring in theatre. Offered annually. (3 sem. hrs.)

THEA 130. Stagecraft
A lecture and studio class to introduce students to terminology and processes of theatrical productions. Students will become familiar with the theatre while learning such skills as shop safety and tool operation, light board operation, and drafting. Students will be required to attend all department productions for in-class discussion. Offered alternate fall semesters. (3 sem. hrs.)

THEA 200. Acting Two
Intermediate acting class. Approaches to playing characters, text analysis and ensemble work. Prerequisite: theatre major or permission of instructor. Offered alternate spring semesters. (3 sem. hrs.)

THEA 201. Arts Management
An interdisciplinary approach to arts management. Students will develop skills in marketing, public relations, development and management of arts programming and organizations through the study of theory as well as through practical experience. Offered alternate spring semesters. (3 sem. hrs.)

THEA 222. Lighting Design
In-depth study of theatre lighting design. (3 sem. hrs.)

THEA 224. Production Practical
This course will put the theoretical knowledge students have gained in technical theatre and performing arts courses into real use on real productions. They will be assigned a “job” in lighting, scenic, properties, costumes, or hair and makeup at a level consistent with skills, knowledge and interest and will work in a semi-professional setting under professors, visiting artists and other students. Prerequisite: permission of instructor. THEA 224 may be repeated for credit. Offered every semester. (1−3 sem. hrs.)

THEA 255. Stage Management
Study of the techniques and theories of production stage management, including leadership, production planning and scheduling, communication, production team coordination, employee contracts, unions, safety regulations, technical rehearsals, troubleshooting, mediation and calling a show. Class projects and assigned production positions required. Offered as needed. (3 sem. hrs.)

THEA 278. Rehearsal and Performance/Theatre (Student)
Acting, stage managing or serving as assistant director for a student senior thesis project in theatre. Experiential learning: students develop performance skills, discipline, collaborative leadership ability, and an understanding of theatrical production. Prerequisite: permission of instructor. Graded: S/U. May be repeated for credit. Offered as needed. (1 sem. hr.)

THEA 280. Rehearsal and Performance/Theatre
Acting, stage managing or serving as assistant director for faculty theatre production. Students rehearse three to four days per week for six to nine weeks total. Two to three performances and formal critique. Hands-on experience of the creative process that develops performance skills, discipline, collaborative leadership and an understanding of theatrical production. Prerequisite: permission of instructor. May be repeated for credit. Offered annually. (1−3 sem. hrs.)

THEA 285/385. Topics in Theatre
In-depth study of a selected topic in theatre, such as Advanced Stagecraft or Devised Theatre. Past topics have included: Arts in Education; Screenwriting; Costume Design; and Scenic Design. Offered as needed. (2−4 sem. hrs.)

THEA 290/390. Internships in Theatre
Individually arranged participation in areas of arts management, education or other related careers in the performing arts. Students may submit proposals. Graded: S/U. Offered every semester. (2−4 sem. hrs.)

THEA 315. Theatre History
An historical exploration of theatre arts from the ancient Greeks to the present, studying the development of drama in selected periods against a background of cultural and social norms. The course focuses on comparison and analysis of texts and production elements. Prerequisite: THEA 100, any ARTH, HIST, or dramatic literature course, or permission of instructor. Offered alternate years. (3 sem. hrs.)

THEA 320. Marginalized Voices: Women Playwrights
Study of American identities as they are portrayed in contemporary performance. Students will read plays; view films; and attend performances selected from diverse ethnic, racial and class perspectives. Issues include nontraditional casting, censorship, ideas of performance and identity. Prerequisite: THEA 100 or a course in dramatic literature; or permission of instructor. Offered alternate years. (3 sem. hrs.)

THEA 325. Production Practical
This course will put the theoretical knowledge students have gained in technical theatre and performing arts courses into real use on real productions. They will be assigned a “job” in lighting, scenic, properties, costumes, or hair and makeup at a level consistent with skills, knowledge and interest and will work in a semi-professional setting under professors, visiting artists and other students. Prerequisite: THEA 224 or permission of instructor. THEA 325 may be repeated for credit. Offered every semester. (1−3 sem. hrs.)

THEA 330. Improvisational Theatre
An exploration of improvisational theatre concentrating on the forms of comedic improvisation and Playback Theatre. Students will learn how to think on their feet, share the space with other actors and explore the art of storytelling. Course work consists of group projects and ensemble acting. Some acting experience helpful, but not required. Prerequisite: THEA 128 or permission of instructor. May be repeated for credit. Offered alternate years. (1 sem. hr.)

THEA 331. Acting Shakespeare
Students will investigate “speaking the speech” of Shakespeare. In-depth script analysis, pronunciation, and rhythm will give basis for scene and monologue work. Students will research character and text, and will perform scenes as part of their course work. Some acting experience helpful, but not required. Prerequisite: THEA 128 or permission of instructor. May be repeated for credit. Offered alternate years. (1 sem. hr.)

THEA 332. Acting Styles
In this course, students will research and perform a variety of classical acting styles. Language, voice and movement of these styles will be considered as students read plays from the various time periods. This course serves to expose the students to advanced styles of acting. Styles may include Greek tragedy, commedia dell’arte, Molière, Chekhov, Ibsen and/or Shaw. Some acting experience helpful, but not required. Prerequisite: THEA 128 or permission of instructor. May be repeated for credit. Offered alternate years. (1 sem. hr.)

THEA 333. Getting the Part: Monologues and Audition Techniques
Students will learn the techniques of researching and finding monologues for audition material. Students will also learn about the process of auditioning and will gain knowledge of various methods for a successful audition. Monologues, head shots and resumés will be prepared to help students be “audition ready” by the end of the course. Some acting experience is helpful but not required. Prerequisite: THEA 128 or permission of instructor. May be repeated for credit. Offered alternate years. (1 sem. hr.)

THEA 338. Methods of Directing
The study of theories, practices and techniques of stage direction, with special emphasis on the function of director as interpreter, organizer, teacher and visionary. Prerequisite: THEA 128, THEA 200, or permission of instructor. Offered alternate years. (3 sem. hrs.)

THEA 349. Advanced Rehearsal and Performance/Theatre (Student)
Acting, stage managing or service as assistant director for a student senior thesis project in theatre. Students further develop performance skills, discipline, collaborative leadership ability, and an understanding of theatrical production. Prerequisite: permission of instructor. Graded: S/U. May be repeated for credit. Offered as needed. (1 sem. hr.)

THEA 350. Advanced Rehearsal and Performance/Theatre
Acting, stage managing or service as assistant director for faculty theatre production at the advanced level. Opportunity to further develop performance and leadership skills. Students rehearse three to four days per week for six to nine weeks. Two to three performances and formal critique. Prerequisite: permission of instructor. May be repeated for credit. Offered annually. (1−3 sem. hrs.)

THEA 395. Tutorials in Theatre
In-depth study of one topic agreed upon by students and instructor. Past topics have included Advanced Directing. Prerequisite: permission of instructor. May be repeated for credit. Offered as needed. (1 sem. hr.)

THEA 399. Independent Study in Theatre
Prerequisite: permission of instructor and approval. May be repeated for credit. Offered every semester. (1−3 sem. hrs.)

THEA 401. Senior Thesis Project in Theatre
Each student completes a senior thesis project in theatre, or an interdisciplinary combination. Topics must be approved by a faculty member in the discipline. Offered annually. (3 sem. hrs.)

THEA 402. Senior Seminar: Building a Career in Theatre
Seminar includes presentations and discussion as well as individual meetings with the faculty advisors. Offered annually in the spring semester. (1 sem. hr.)

See also: Dance (DANC) courses; Music (MUS) courses; Theatre (THEA) courses

Visual Arts

VART 300. Theoretical Frameworks in Visual Arts
This course focuses on the philosophical questions related to the making and interpretation of visual art, introducing theories and frameworks about perception, visual languages, art institutions and identity. This course will prepare students to critically engage their capstone work. Prerequisite: visual arts major, junior standing or permission of instructor. (3 sem. hrs.)

VART 315. Professional Visual Arts Practices
Students will learn practical skills for artists, art historians and curators. These include documenting, framing and installing work, creating online portfolios, leveraging social media, promotional writing, and applying for grants, exhibitions and graduate study. Prerequisite: visual arts major, junior standing or permission of instructor. Offered annually. (3 sem. hrs.)

VART 401. Senior Seminar in Visual Arts
A critique seminar exploring concepts, processes and materials in the development of a focused, goal- oriented studio practice. Critiques of artwork and research encourage thorough investigation of students’ intentions. Required coursework includes artwork, evidence or artistic research and thesis proposal. Lab fee: $50. Prerequisite: senior visual arts major concentrating in studio or book arts. Offered annually in the fall semester. (4 sem. hrs.)

VART 402. Senior Project in Visual Arts
Studio and Book Arts students execute their thesis proposals, culminating in a body of work or comparably rigorous project, assessed through critiques and refined thesis statement. Lab fee: $50. Prerequisite: VART 401. Offered annually in the spring semester. (3 sem. hrs.)

VART 403. Senior Exhibition in the Visual Arts
Students demonstrate advanced professional practice skills by organizing, planning and implementing their thesis exhibition. Students also complete an artist statement and an artist talk, during which they must articulate the major concepts, aims and contemporary context of their own work. Corequisite: VART 402. Offered annually in the spring semester. (1 sem. hr.)

See also: Visual arts major for a list of courses applicable to the major; Studio art courses; Art history courses; Interdisciplinary courses in the arts

Wells Core Courses

WLLS 100. Wellness, Engagement and Lifelong Learning for Success
Students will be introduced in a holistic manner to the values, resources and support services of Wells College. Staff and peer leaders will help students develop healthy habits for living, learning and being a contributing member of the Wells community. Students will engage in hands-on and participatory experiences both inside and outside of the classroom which will help them to better understand themselves and the community. Offered annually in the fall semester. (3 sem. hrs.)

WLLS 105. College Writing
This course covers the fundamentals of college writing. Intended for all first-year students at Wells, the course gives all students, regardless of major, a shared understanding of how to approach writing throughout their time at Wells and beyond. Offered during both fall and spring semesters. (3 sem. hrs.)

WLLS 106. College Writing Foundations
This course is designed as a writing workshop class supporting students concurrently enrolled in WLLS 105 with additional instruction in writing about readings, essay structure, paragraph development, grammatical precision and the essentials of punctuation. This one-credit course—offered every semester and graded S/U—may be counted towards a full-time load for financial aid purposes. Corequisite: WLLS 105. (1 sem. hr.)

WLLS 110. Personal Financial Management
This course teaches students the skills they need to make informed financial decisions in their life. Topics include transactional accounts, savings, loans, credit cards, mortgages and basic investments. Credit score management and living within one’s means will be recurring themes. Offered annually to first-year, second-semester students through senior-year students. (3 sem. hrs.)

WLLS 121. Research Tools and Skills
This course is designed to teach and strengthen lifelong research and information literacy skills by introducing students to the nature of information and research, and the role of the library in the research process. The method of instruction will be problem-based and require active and collaborative participation. Offered every semester. (1 sem. hr.)

WLLS 122. Learning Strategies
This course will assist students on semester warning or academic probation in developing the academic skills needed to be successful in college. The course will focus on the importance of organization, time management and specific study strategies. (1 sem. hr.)

WLLS 123. Student Development and Values
This course is designed to enhance your effectiveness as a leader at Wells through reflection, exploration of values, understanding of the environment in which you operate and examining your philosophy of leadership—all within the context of your student organization. (1 sem. hr.)

WLLS 124. Writing Lab
Offers assistance to students who wish to improve their writing skills. Emphasis on the “paramedic method,” correcting common sentence-level errors and refining sentence structure provides students with a “tool kit” for creating meaningful academic argument across the curriculum. Offered annually. (1.5 sem. hrs.)

WLLS 126. Internship, Career and Networking
This seven-week course will prepare students for internships and, ultimately, career and graduate school efforts. The course will educate participants regarding concepts, attitudes and actions to attain internship goals and inspire ongoing career explorations, and expression and goal-attainment efforts. Grade: S/U. Offered every semester. (1 sem. hr.)

WLLS 127. Career Preparation
A semester-long, one-credit course that focuses on the development of professional workplace skills and job search techniques for students who plan to enter their career field upon graduation. Topics such as becoming a professional, marketing yourself, interviewing, and locating and securing a job will be covered. Students who are successful in this course will develop increased career confidence due to their enhanced workplace readiness skills. Prerequisite: junior standing or above. Offered every semester. (1 sem. hr.)

WLLS 190. Experiential Learning and Reflection
Individually-arranged field experiences allowing students to transcend boundaries by exploring their interests. Through reflection activities students assess their learning (knowledge, skills and beliefs) and personal development. The student’s academic advisor serves as the faculty sponsor. Prerequisite: first-year or sophomore standing. Graded S/U. May be repeated for credit. Offered annually or as needed. (1−3 sem. hrs.)

Women's and Gender Studies

WGS 148. Introduction to Women’s and Gender Studies
An interdisciplinary examination of contemporary scholarship on women’s experience. The course will include analysis of women’s political, social and cultural experiences, using discussions, readings, films, student presentations and guest lectures. Offered every semester. (3 sem. hrs.)

WGS 245. Body Politics
Analysis of the ways women’s bodies are made the site of power struggles between competing interest groups in society, and the effect of this on individual women’s lives. Topics include body image, reproductive rights, violence, harassment, sexuality and self-defense. Prerequisite: WGS 148 or permission of instructor. Offered occasionally. (3 sem. hrs.)

WGS 230. Women and Gender in Sport
This course will use sport to understand gender relations in a society. It will focus on how sports shape cultural ideas of masculinity and femininity and examine assumptions about how professional and amateur athletes reflect and challenge social norms about gender, sexuality, race and class. This course will invite students to consider the intersection of politics, economics, society, culture and representation in sport and will map out and respond to the multifaceted issues that emerge when women enter the sports world. 
(3 sem. hrs.)

WGS 260. Indigenous Women’s Experiences
Utilizing an interdisciplinary approach, this course will provide an introduction to the lives and experiences of indigenous women from pre-Contact to contemporary times. By centering indigenous women’s experiences, theories and perspectives, dominant feminist frames of reference will be critically examined. Offered annually in the spring semester. (3 sem. hrs.)

WGS 285/385. Topics in Women’s and Gender Studies
In-depth study of a selected topic in women's and gender studies. May be repeated for credit with different topics. Past topics have included: Women's Utopian/Anti-Utopian Fiction; Transgenderism; Femininities/ Masculinities; and Gender, Ethnicity and Immigration. Offered occasionally. (3 sem. hrs.)

WGS 290/390. Internship in Women’s and Gender Studies
Students will use their backgrounds in women’s and gender studies to blend their academic expertise with work addressing women’s concerns, such as with the Women’s Hall of Fame, Planned Parenthood and N.O.W. Arrangements are the student’s responsibility in consultation with the instructor(s) and the Office of Academic and Career Advising. Prerequisite: permission of instructor and successful completion of a course listed for the women’s and gender studies major. Graded: S/U. May be repeated for credit. Offered every semester. (2−4 sem. hrs.)

WGS 295/395. Tutorial in Women’s and Gender Studies
Analysis of the ways women’s bodies are made the site of power struggles between competing In-depth study of an area of special interest. Topic to be determined jointly by a faculty member and student(s) in consultation. Meets weekly for one hour. Offered as needed. May be repeated for credit. (1 sem. hr.)

WGS 301. Feminist Theory
An intensive readings course for upper-level women’s and gender studies majors and minors. A focus on debates and conflicts shaping and affecting the production of feminist knowledge will provide an introduction to feminist theorizing. Emphasis placed on writing as thinking and active discussion in class. Prerequisite: WGS 148, one other course from the women’s and gender studies major, and junior standing or above or permission of instructor. Offered annually in the fall semester. (3 sem. hrs.)

WGS 310. Feminist Methodologies: Intersectionalities
Exploration of the complexities of race/class/gender/sexuality/ability/nation in the social construction of identities as they impact multiple inequalities. Examines methodologies and theoretical frameworks developed to understand how differing methods of classification and oppression operate as interactive and interdependent systems. Prerequisite: WGS 148, one other women’s and gender studies course, and junior standing or above. Offered annually in the spring semester. (3 sem. hrs.)

WGS 399. Independent Study/Project in Women’s and Gender Studies
Readings and papers, or a more innovative course comprised of, for example, readings and a creative project, or readings and work with an agency concerned with women’s issues. Prerequisite: permission of instructor and approval. May be repeated for credit. Offered every semester. (1−3 sem. hrs.)

WGS 401. Senior Project in Women’s and Gender Studies
Project of an interdisciplinary nature, informed by the student’s disciplinary focus, concerning gender studies. Directed by a primary advisor (selected from women’s and gender studies faculty) and a secondary advisor. Students will present their work in the Women’s and Gender Studies Colloquium. Prerequisite: senior standing and women’s and gender studies major. Offered annually in the spring semester. (4 sem. hrs.)

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